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Community Development through Occupation
Community Development through Occupation
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2015 Artwork OCCP4087
2015 Artwork OCCP5228
2014 Artwork OCCP4087
2014 Artwork OCCP5228
2016 Artwork OCCP4087
2016 Artwork OCCP5228
Penelope and Alice
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2015 Artwork OCCP5228
Through the Cracks
30cm x 10cm x15 cm
Cardboard, acrylic paint, Duplo
The 2015 Nepalese earthquake killed 8000 people, injured 18 000 and left 1.4 million people homeless. Villages were left without a building standing, so that 950 000 Nepalese children are unable to attend school. Children are deprived of their rights to healthy development, education and play as parents and aid agencies struggle to provide basic survival needs.
Through the Cracks
presents the factors that impose barriers to children participating in the role of school student. The cracks in the earth are a metaphor for components of pre-earthquake life that have ‘fallen through the cracks’, preventing children from attending school: the upturned goat represents loss of productivity, leading children to on long-term worker roles; the lost mother represents a change of role for older siblings who take on carer responsibilities; the book represents the loss of school buildings that provided learning environments; the broken house represents the loss of home, which reduces the priorities of displaced families to the need to secure shelter and food.
The centrepiece of the work shows how Child Friendly Spaces in the Kathmandu Valley enable children to participate in school-related occupations in the midst of devastation. CFS provide protected environments for children to rebuild routines, resume their education and recover from trauma. They uphold the occupational rights of children to play and learn and re-establish the roles of child, friend and student.
However, CFS are temporary. Will the Nepalese government prioritise the rebuilding of schools as Nepal recovers, or will childhood itself fall through the cracks?
Save the Children, 2015.
. Retrieved 12 May, 2015 from
TITLE: SEEDS OF CHANGE
Andrew Zagninski & Yumiko Iyama
MEASUREMENTS: 510mm (w) x 360mm (h) x 40mm (d) (hinged)
MEDIUM USED: Canvas, Acrylic Paint, Bark/Sticks, White Sand, Poppy Seeds, Thin Form, Leaves, Diorama Grass, Printed Media
Female infanticide/feticide is a major issue in India, particularly in rural regions, that is closely tied to patriarchal religious and cultural practices. Females are viewed as economic and social burdens when compared to males due to dowry provision and elements of religious practice. While legislation outlaws foetal gender determination with the intent of abortion, statistics indicate that this remains a frequent occurrence, with regional gender imbalance evident in census data.
These practices result in disrupted role participation in parenting of daughters as well as result in occupational injustice for families with daughters who married with limited dowry being treated unfairly. The rights of females generally remain viewed as secondary to those of males.
One community in East India undertake a sustainable method of addressing perceived economic burden through the planting of mango trees at birth. Fruit/timber production provides an income base through the girl’s development/education and provides dowry on marriage, fulfilling cultural /religious requirements. It also improves the local environment and has been linked to lower incidences of violence towards women.
While gender discrimination remains as a part of culture, this method builds community capacity, assisting the vulnerable while respecting tradition. People shaped with seeds represent this change in their community capacity, growth, and inclusion with the true fulfilment of parenting roles. The fruit illustrates female contribution to society and sustainability. A kneeling person filled with sands suggests the barrenness and loss of hope looking at an infant image in the grey sky describing imbalance and the issues involved.
Ahmad, N. (2010). Female feticide in India. Issues in Law & Medicine, 26(1), 13-29.
Kumar, K. (2013, October 31). Mango trees to the rescue of Indian girls. Aljazeera. Retrieved from
A Mind Filled With Meaning
Greta Arundell & Emma Clarke
Height: 40cm; Width: 30cm; Depth: 1cm
Cardboard, canvas, digital illustration and photographs
Hogeweyk (2015). Copyright by Madeleine Sars [
] and Michael Bol [
Hogeweyk Village architect
]. Retrieved 15 April, 2015,
Reproduced with permission from the creator.
Dementia is a major cause of disability among older people, affecting 47.5 million people worldwide. The degenerative condition results in people losing their functional capacities, requiring long-term care. Often when someone experiences moderate to advanced stages of dementia they are removed from their home and community and placed in a dementia care facility. Family members perceive this as the only way to keep their loved one safe. However traditional care facilities deny residents the right to engage in meaningful productivity, leisure and self-care occupations. Residents are confined to clinical environments where mundane craft and ‘social’ activities are organised routinely by staff. This loss of autonomy surrounding occupational choice is considered the most disabling aspect of dementia, leading to poorer health and well-being.
At Hogeweyk Village, a dementia care facility in the Netherlands, residents receive the same full-time care and safety provided in traditional facilities but in an environment that resembles a typical Dutch community. Residents live in personalised homes; and with assistance from staff, manage their own household chores and can safely and freely access Hogeweyk’s own restaurant, theatre, café, supermarket, and gardens.
The lower half of this artwork represents the underwhelming environment of traditional care facilities. The photographs above suggest people with dementia crave meaningful occupational engagement despite their diagnosis and perceived functional capacity. They illustrate the Hogeweyk community, where environmental supports afford residents the right to engage meaningfully in occupations, enhancing their well-being and quality of life.
A second village is opening in America in August 2015.
Make a massive difference
Claire Bowley and Corey Block
60cm x 60cm
Chalk board, chalk and photographs (taken by Claire Bowley)
Many people in India live below the poverty line. Poverty is a vicious cycle, resulting in educational inequality and reduced employment opportunities. Bangalore, India’s IT capital, is rich with employment opportunities. In contrast, rural communities outside of Bangalore have limited employment opportunities. Most community members gain an income through their work in granite quarry mines (as depicted in the artwork), working 6-7 12 hours days per week, using chisels and dynamite to break apart the granite. Many cannot afford to send their children to school.
The link between education and breaking the poverty cycle is well established. The centre of the artwork depicts children born into poverty as typically experiencing educational inequality resulting from pressures for children to work instead of attend school, low quality of teachers and high rates of teacher absenteeism. Due to factors out of their control these children experience limited employment opportunities and are typically forced into the granite quarries like their parents, resulting in occupational deprivation. The 40K Foundation, an Australian NGO with the value “make a massive difference”, aims to break the poverty cycle by increasing educational opportunities for children living in rural Bangalore. The artwork uses a chalkboard and chalk to further emphasise the link between education and the poverty cycle. The 40K Foundation strives to break the poverty cycle by employing local community members to facilitate education for rural children. By using a sustainable business model, 40K have created an educational program that will strive to improve employment opportunities for future generations.
TITLE: Enforcing Conscription, Abolishing Identity
ARTISTS: Lauren Blume and Kate Ingold
MEASUREMENTS: 360mm x 460mm
MEDIUM USED: Canvas, acrylic, cardboard and paper
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has continued to apply compulsory military conscription of men between the ages of 18-27. Russia views service as a necessary occupation for all men to experience to support the country’s global image. Many citizens don’t identify with this as a part of their occupational identity. There is a dual divide of conflicted occupations. Conscripted men are required to serve in adverse conditions where brutal hazing occurs (starvation, torture, bullying) by permanent serving members. These men are displaced from their meaningful careers and many resist conscription by paying doctors to fake illnesses and commit suicide to avoid service. Conscription demonstrates strong political, historical, financial and societal pressure contributing to the occupational deprivation of men who are isolated from their meaningful lifetime roles.
The artwork represents the fragmentation of a Russian boy’s life, the vulnerability experienced during conscription and loss of occupational identity over the course of forced military service. The blank blackboard symbolises freedom for the boys to write their own path. The second frame depicts a misty haze of conformity and confusion where they are indistinguishable. The back of the soldiers emphasises the loss of self-identity. The third frame surrounds Russian text emphasising how their lives have been written for them, the torn edges depicting the trauma of occupational deprivation, grief and loss. The final frame represents how the men’s future is desolate. One man is lost, underlining the ultimate consequence of suicide, death due to warfare, or death of valued occupations.
The Fairness in Fairtrade
Georgia Howard and Paige Waller
36.5cm x 24.5cm x 17cm
Mixed media - food, glass jar, ceramic mug, plant and soil, printed image
Coffee is the main source of international exportation for rural communities in the developing African country of Burundi. Rural farming families rely on this income, which is made possible through fairtrade certification. Fairtrade means stable income to protect the farmers against international fluctuating coffee prices, to provide adequately for their families and funding of community projects, such as building coffee washing stations and schools. However this is not all positive. Burundi farmers suffered hardship in the process of becoming certified, as consumers stopped purchasing their non-certified coffee. Political factors and the nature of many small coffee farms meant that it took a long time to gain certification, and this was time without income. Has it become a “trend” in the developed world to buy fairtrade coffee? What about these small communities who struggle to become certified and slump into poverty because consumers stop buying non-certified coffee? Who was benefiting?
The cycle of the artwork represents the growth, harvest and exportation of coffee, placed on the Burundi flag. The coffee tree represents the livelihood of the Burundi coffee farmers and their meaningful occupation. The green mug represents the colour of the Burundi flag, earthly environment and the end stage of the coffee cycle, as used by the consumers. The pile of coffee beans signifies the long, labor-intensive harvesting process. The concept of the glass jar demonstrates exportation and symbolises an invisible barrier that was created by the slow fairtrade certification process where the farming communities were disadvantaged.
10 kilometres, 5 hours, 20 kilograms: Walking for Water- Is it worth it?
Rebecca War and Sarah Rickard
600 mm x 600 mm
Canvas, acrylic paint, impasto additive
It wasn’t the first time this had happened here, and it
wouldn’t be the last…
“My life changed,” Grace said with tears in her eyes,
“My dreams were cut off.”
Our artwork depicts a girl’s quest through the mud to collect water in Sub-Saharan Africa. For women and girls in this region, this is their primary occupation. The artwork serves to illustrate that whilst collecting water is an essential and positive activity, bringing about fresh water and improved sanitation, the occupation is laborious and riddled with risks. The journey is also a particularly dangerous enterprise for women, whereby they are subjected to risk of sexual assault and harassment, like 14-year-old Grace who was raped whilst collecting water (Charity:Water, 2015). Furthermore, the time spent walking for water presents a barrier to attending school and playing with friends, thus effectively depriving them of a childhood, education and hope for a future.
The footprints represent the treacherous journey through the mud women and girls are required to take, dictated by social customs and gender norms within this culture. The consistency and depth of the ‘mud’ and footprints highlight the unpredictability and physical burden of their walk, whilst the colours reflect the bleakness of the task and their perceived future prospects. Lastly, the image is framed, both physically and metaphorically, by words that resonate with their journey – the footprints are walking towards words representing the potential outcomes of their plight, and away from words representing what they must forgo to undertake such a journey.
Charity : Water (2015). It Happened on the Walk for Water. Retrieved from
If Only Just a Dream
Casey Fisher & Lucy Hanigan
30cm x 30cm x 41cm
Mixed media - wire, natural grass, skeleton leaf, paper mache, oil-based paint
The Achuar people live sustainably and harmoniously in the Amazon, residing on a remote area of land on the Ecuador-Peruvian border. The name Achuar means 'people of the aguaje tree’. Dreams are central to the world view of the Achuar, guiding their decisions and shaping their waking activities. The interpretation of dreams has become an intersubjective activity woven into the life of the community. As custodians of the rainforest, the Achuar employ systems of economic and social organisation based on the intricate natural rhythms of their environment. They are a self-sufficient community - hunting, fishing and harvesting for survival.
This artwork depicts the rapid destruction of the Achuar people’s ecological way of life, as international oil companies are exploring and drilling for oil. The aguaje tree is representative of the Achuar people’s connection to the land, with the deep root system depicting the determination of the community to protect their culture and, essentially, their well-being. The solitary leaf represents the isolated struggle of the Achuar to maintain and preserve their rich, resourceful ecosystem, despite the impacts of oil exploitation and contamination.
Fish are no longer fit for consumption, and the soil is no longer viable to produce agricultural crops which the Achuar depend on for subsistence.
The destruction of the rainforest by the oil industry will ultimately lead to the spiritual disconnection and displacement of the Achuar people. The future of the Achuar tribe is unknown, and will be dependent on the utilization of this sacred land for economic gain.
Dear Mom and Dad, please grow up with me
ARTISTS: Shuting Huang, Mo zhou
MEASUREMENTS: 56cm x 33cm x 14cm
MEDIUM USED:Mix media: clay, cardboard, paper, egg tray
Rapid economic development in China has created economic opportunities in cities which attracted millions of parents to move from rural to urban areas, leaving behind their children under the care of grandparents or other relatives. These children are called the “Left Behind Children” (LBC). There is around 61 million LBC in China.
LBC experience stark psychosocial problems. In most cases, guardians do not have the necessary abilities to take care of these children, leading to neglect. Therefore LBC are vulnerable to physical and emotional hurt, with their personal safety often compromised. Additionally, as LBC have low social support and socioeconomic status, their rights are often infringed upon. Hence, it is unsurprising that they are beaten, sexually assaulted or threatened. Even so, they will choose to remain silent because they do not feel safe without their parents. Furthermore, as their parents have limited emotional communication with their children, many LBC have developed behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, conduct issues, peer relationship problems and exhibit abnormal behaviors to draw attention from parents. Psychological wellbeing is also adversely affected. They are observed to be depressed, socially withdrawn, lack of interest and have vulnerable self-esteem.
The artwork portrays significant differences between a parent’s life in a city and a LBC’s childhood experiences. Black colour is used to represent the gloomy world the child is living in. A telephone cord is used to connect the child and the parent because their main medium of communication is via telephone.
Fan, F., Su, L., Gill, M. K., & Birmaher, B. (2010). Emotional and behavioral problems of Chinese left-behind children: a preliminary study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 45(6), 655-664.
He, B., Fan, J., Liu, N., Li, H., Wang, Y., Williams, J., & Wong, K. (2012). Depression risk of ‘left-behind children’in rural China. Psychiatry research,200(2), 306-312.
Lu, W. (2011). Left-Behind Children in Rural China: Research Based on the Use of Qualitative Methods in Inner Mongolia. University of York
The Journey of The Unconquered
Sophie Bilsborough & Erika Aoyama
29cm x 33cm x 33cm
Mixed media, paint, collage
Many men and women who return from military service, come home with a large range of injuries including musculoskeletal, amputations, burns, brain injuries and stress disorders. Some of these men and women have difficulty in adjusting to their life and engaging in their community following their deployment. Considering that 126 United Nations (UN) member states have submitted reports on military expenditure, it is clear that this issue is on a global scale.
It has been shown that sports may be an effective medium of alternative treatment for ex-service men and women as it involves athleticism and challenges that are environmental, physical and psychological, which reflects some elements of the culture in the military.
The Invictus Games is an international adaptive sporting event for wounded, injured and sick ex-service men and women. The Games encompass sport as a means to an end by creating a journey of rebuilding self-confidence, ambitions, a career, a family, community reintegration and social life. The event aims to generate worldwide awareness, and essentially produce a legacy programme to support accessibility of adaptive sport and further employment opportunities for transitioning ex-service men and women.
This artwork ‘The Journey of the Unconquered” aims to portray the path to recovery that ex-service men and women embark on. It conveys how sport is used as a means to overcome the physical, community engagement and psychological issues of returning Servicemen and women. Ultimately occupational balance is restored and the essence of ‘Invictus’, meaning, unconquered is promoted.
TITLE: Why SO Serious?
ARTISTS: Ashleigh Vos & Carly Duckworth
MEASUREMENTS: 40.7cm x 50.9cm
MEDIUM USED: Multimedia- Self created comic strips, paint, texta, pencil, online images on canvas.
Adulthood is serious business, play is not. In fact, one could see seriousness as the antithesis of play. Once we reach adulthood play is an occupation which is increasingly being less and less engaged in, particularly in the United States of America. Culturally in the USA the idea of a true adult is someone juggling so many responsibilities they can hardly stand up at the end of each day, let alone think about something as childish as play. Interestingly play in adults is an important occupation for de- stressing, increasing productivity, better problem solving skills and it is just plain good for us. Considering adults are becoming increasingly unhealthy, stressed and depressed, play may be something we should be taking more seriously. When you think about the adult who plays, you think of an irresponsible childlike adult who is carefree and has plenty of time. But.... To step outside the cultural norm and be authentic is to allow yourself to be vulnerable, this takes courage so one may say the adult who engages in play is going to be the happiest, most productive and most courageous out of us all. So if play makes us more productive and productivity is highly valued in adulthood then why are adults not playing? With this in mind playfulness and play should be a serious business in adulthood. Why So Serious? represents the cultural barriers for American adults to the elements of playfulness which are considered perquisites to engaging in play.
Online image references:
Michael Tapp, 9/10/2012. Walking Rush Hour New York Subway Commute. Flickr. Photograph.
. Accessed 19/05/2014.
Tim Evanson, 5/04/2012. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier- guard announces changing of gaurds- Arlington National Cemetary- 2012. Flickr. Photograph.
. Accessed 19/05/2014.
401kcalculator.org, 8/11/2011. $100 dollar Bills. Flickr. Photograph.
. Accessed 19/05/2014.
Pocketwatch- no attribution required. Accessed 19/05/2014.
Daniel Condurachi, 26/09/2010. People- the joy of happiness. Flickr. Photograph.
. Accessed 19/05/2014.
Ludovic Berton, 22/11/2008. Why so serious? Flickr. Photograph.
. Accessed 19/05/2014.
TITLE: The Changing Face of Waria
ARTISTS: Rebecca Karmas & Melissa Docker
MEASUREMENTS: 75cm x 45cm
MEDIUM USED: Mirror, acrylic paint, glitter, make-up, permanent marker, paper, feather boa, lace gloves, sequin headband, images licensed for non-commercial use.
Waria are the transgender persons of Indonesia. The word Waria comes from the combination of the Indonesian words wanita (woman) and pria (man). Waria face large amounts of stigma; stereotyped as flamboyant low-rent sex workers soliciting from the side of the street or as lowbrow entertainers. They experience discrimination in formal employment. While some are able to find work in the ‘lower-levels’, food stalls, beauty salons and the entertainment world, many must work as prostitutes in order to make ends meet. The health and education of Waria are generally poor.
Due to the high number of Waria that engage in prostitution, Waria have some of the highest rates of HIV in the world. Many Waria are outcast from their family and find themselves in poverty, homeless and isolated from previous social networks. Waria who begin transitioning in their teenage years leave institutional education, limiting their future employment prospects. For those who wish to continue education, many universities and schools are Islamic run facilities, and Waria are not welcome to study there.
Waria advocates for LGBT rights are slowly changing the face of Waria in Indonesian society. The subject of our artwork, Yulianus Rettoblaut (Mamma Yuli) has become a leading LGBT activist who is trying to drive change in the Waria community. At age 46, after 17 years on the street as a sex worker, Mamma Yuli attended an Islamic university to study law. She continues to handle transgender rights cases and has a career in activism, making a better world for her Waria community
Nellie Howes & Michelle Lauchlan
2m x 3m
Paper, oil pastel, pencil, ink, string, cotton sheet, twine basket, crepe paper, and children's toys
Children are often collateral damage in warfare. Since the 1970s, the media image of child soldiers have become synonymous with Africa, and children were seen engaging in conflicts on both sides. Bosch and Easthorpe propose that children are considered to be better soldiers by lawful and unlawful armed bodies, as they are easier to manipulate (2012). Young children are often abducted into these armed bodies, however, some children are voluntarily recruited in communities with extreme poverty. Many are given powerful narcotics to engender irrationally fearless soldiers. With 80% of all these soldiers 15 years of age and younger, their childhood ceases to exist (Bosch & Easthorpe, 2012).
According to the UN Convention document, Rights of the Child, issues which we identified as being most deprived in this population include: the right to a quality education, the right to have your basic safety needs met, protection from exposure to harmful drugs, and the right to engage in play (Hodgkin & Newell, 1998).
This artwork contains two primary components. The first is a series of painted images that capture the occupational deprivation present in this issue. The second is the aid parachute positioned over the images to represent a descending aid drop. The intention of this artwork is to exemplify the importance of meeting the occupational needs of these children as an extension to providing basic aid.
Bosch, S., & Easthorpe, J. (2012). Africa's toy soldiers, non-state armed groups, and 'voluntary' recruitment: Anything but child's play. African Security Review, 21(2), 4-19. doi:10.1080/10246029.2011.634919
Hodgkin, R., & Newell, P. (1998). Implementation handbook for the convention on the rights of the child. USA: UNICEF, 1998.
TITLE: Home Sweet Home
ARTISTS: Charlene Tan & Shun Lok Lam
MEASUREMENTS: 32cm x 32 cm x 19 cm
MEDIUM USED: Shoebox, sticks, papers and photographs
Dementia is deterioration of brain functions including memory and thinking, affects more than 47 million people globally (WHO, 2015). It is prevalent among the elderly; they depend heavily on their families and caregivers for support in their daily activities. Families without the resources to care for them at home would have to send them to aged care facilities. Freedom to perform meaningful occupations is often deprived at those aged care facilities.
Hogeweyk, a unique dementia village in the Netherlands with supermarket, restaurant, cinema, cafe etc., provides an environment simulating the community for its residents and allow them to feel at home. It enables them to perform meaningful occupations within a safe environment.
Self-care, leisure and productivity are important occupations to elderlies. Being able to exercise their freedom to choose what activity to take part in is a way to ensure they have occupational rights. They could watch a movie, go for a walk in the park, go shopping at the supermarket or prepare meals under the supervision of staff in Hogeweyk. This physical environment provides them the autonomy to perform daily activities.
People with dementia are often occupationally deprived when placed in aged care facilities that have limited resources to provide an engaging environment. A sedentary lifestyle among elderlies would lead to a decline in their physical and psychosocial well-being.
With more aged care facilities like Hogeweyk in the community, more people with dementia would be able to exercise their autonomy in performing meaningful occupation in a simulated home environment.
Eldridge, A. (2012), Copyright by Anita Edridge [Photographer]. Retrieved 14 May 2015, from The Guardian
Reproduced with permission from the creator.
Erkelens Digital Imaging (2012), Copyright by Hans Erkelens [Photographer]. Retrieved 14 May 2015, from Flickr
Reproduced with permission from the creator.
Gabriel 'Briel' Rocha (2011), Retrieved 14 May 2015, from Flickr
KopArt Amstelveen (2015), The various interiors of the Hogeweyk houses, Retrieved 14 May 2015, from Twisted Sifter
KopArt, Amstelveen (2015). Retrieved 14 May 2015, from Twisted Sifter
WHO. (2015, March). Dementia. Retrieved May 16, 2015, from
Issue of Girl-Education in Nigeria
Xiuhui Meng & Olusegun Akinwale Ola
42 cm x 29.5 cm
Oil Pastels on Canvas Artist Pad
‘Girl-child’ refers to a female between 6-18 years. Girl-child education is a major issue in Nigeria. The country has the highest number of girls that are out of school in West Africa. More than 75% of 3.4 million children out of school are girls. Factors identified as responsible include: cultural and religious misconceptions, poverty, early marriage, inadequate school infrastructure. Nigerian patriarchal societal viewpoint favours boys over girls because boys maintain the family lineage; making girl-children vulnerable and undervalued. Many have to stay home to nurse others or sent out to work at a young age due to poverty. While boys go to school, girls can only look on! Girls are abducted for early marriage; therefore teenage pregnancy is rife (Alabi, Bahah, & Alabi, 2014; Liman, Asraf, & Shittu, 2011). Combination of these is an incredible disadvantage to girls in the short and long terms. In the short term, girl-children’s intellectual and physical development would be below par when compared to boys’. While in the long term, there would be a significant socioeconomic disparity between the two.
Capacity development and/or social advocacy such as enlightening stakeholders on girls’ right to education, benefits of educating girls, and importance of developing policies that support girls’ education would increase participation of more girls in Nigerian schools.
Equal access to education for boys and girls in Nigeria would enable girls to develop mentally, socially, emotionally, politically and economically. Also educated mothers would more likely raise children who would grow up to become responsible citizens than uneducated mothers; which should culminate in Nigeria’s socioeconomic growth.
Alabi, T., Bahah, M., & Alabi, S. O. (2014). The girl-child: a sociological view on the problems of girl-child education in Nigeria.(Author abstract). European Scientific Journal, 10(2), 393.
Liman, M. A., Asraf, R. M., & Shittu, A. T. (2011). GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(12), 851.
Water Awareness in Indo
: Luke Sequeira, Nathan Gray
60cm x 40cm x 15cm
: Surfboard, Paint
Due to demanding growth and economic development Indonesia has become a pollution hotspot. Expanding industries account for much of the development, and waste from industrial and commercial processes is increasingly making its way into both surface water and groundwater supplies. Indonesia lacks wastewater treatment, and the basic sanitation infrastructure necessary to prevent human excrement from contaminating their water supplies. Roughly 53 percent of Indonesians obtain their water from sources that are contaminated by raw sewage, and this exposure greatly increases human exposure to water-related diseases.
At least 80 percent of 250 millions Indonesian have no access to piped water. Due to difficulties and limited access to clean water large number of people still using river for drinking water, bathing, and washing.
As a result of the contaminated water supplies communities within Indonesia experience occupational injustices. Occupational deprivation is the main issue for communities as they are becoming unable to participate/ engage safely in play and leisure activities such as swimming, fishing, surfing, boating, picnicking and gardening, and self care activites.
The artwork depicts the need for a developing awareness of water quality issues through the channel of western surf tourisms. Surfers travel to enjoy the plentiful surf available in Indonesia and need to be aware of the occupational issues present among the neighboring communities. We used each fin of the board to represent a module of the CBR matrix: Health, Social, and Empowerment. The brown colour represents the dirty water throughout Indonesia, and the blue represents clean water once the initiatives have taken place.
Blakeney, A. B., & Marshall, A. (2009). Water quality, health, and human occupations. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(1), 46-57.
Daud, S. B. (2006). Community empowerment and irrigation management: a case of water users association in south Sulawesi, Indonesia. Potential of Social Capital for Community Development.
Water Environment Partnership Asia (2015). State of Water Environmental Issues: Indonesia. Accessed: 11/5/2015. Retrieved from:
Olga Glybina & Kirsten Leong
60cm x 60 cm x 42cm
Canvas, acrylic paint, wood, wire, fabric, various recycled materials and objects.
“Neobuchaemy” (необучаемыми), a term in Russia that state doctors used to diagnose children with any disability as “uneducable” and having no potential to develop in life. Parents of these children are falsely advised of the nature of disability and its burden, and are pressured by medical staff to leave their child in the care of state orphanages. Children with disabilities account for a small percent of Russia’s total child population, yet are highly overrepresented in orphanages.
The artwork portrays the perspective of a child with disability, who is powerlessly bound to a crib in the “lying-down” wards of institutions, neglected by staff and subjected to inhumane methods of punishment — physical restraint, abuse, chemical sedation, isolation, and denial of familial contact. The inhumane treatment of the child with disability, denial of rights, and exclusion from the outer community and occupational engagement severely impedes their physical, social, emotional and intellectual development, and is portrayed by the fence and the items in front. Beyond the fence, the colourful and meaningful occupations and roles that the child is deprived of, such as going to school, playing freely, participating in nurturing family and home life, are unobtainable by the child, separated by society’s excluding and detrimental stigmatisation of disability and the government’s lack of initiative and support to children, families and community experiencing disability.
To abominate these occupational injustices that deprive the children’s rights from participating in a meaningful childhood, educating the society and key political leaders that they are not “uneducable” is essential.
Image: Steve Hillbrand, 26/11/2014. Family enjoys strolling on the paths at a park copyright friendly picture (Photograph). Public Domain Images. Retrieved May 16, 2015, from
Community Gardens - Planting, Growing, Harvesting Resources and Well-Being
Taylor Chrapko & Tamara Zakarian
37cm X 25cm X 50cm
The presence of hunger and poverty is an occurrence experienced by millions from the slums of India to the tribal villages of West Africa to the back streets of
Brazil. Social, political and economic determinants such as race, low socioeconomic status, poor access to resources, limited skills and training contribute to poverty and food insecurity. Poverty greatly impacts well-being, as people can no longer engage and participate in meaningful activities such as employment or attending school, experiencing the loss of several roles, as people’s focus becomes survival.
Over the years, various NGOs have used “community gardens” to target poverty and food insecurity in impoverished areas. Community gardens are maintained by those living in the community so that members can become self-serving. In promoting sustainability, the responsibility to nurture and grow edible produce becomes that of the community. Through these community gardens, people connect with those around them, develop skills that may be transferred to the workforce, and harvest nutritious produce for themselves and their families. This increases their engagement in meaningful activities, improving well-being.
Recycled materials were used to visually represent a vegetable market stand. The foundation of the stand was built upon “garbage” to represent the impoverished communities which have benefitted from these gardens. The vegetables represent nutritious produce that may be harvested by the community and the market stand represents the skills and job opportunities offered by these initiatives. The map across the bottom of the stand represents the global need and presence of these community gardens.
One Click Saves Two Lives
Shi Yi Heng and Subahari Ravindran
25cm X 25cm X 30cm
Samsung phone, stethoscope, plasma globe, blu tac, paper and color pencils
Teen mothers in Zambia, have a higher risk of complications, disability and death during the pregnancy and childbirth, due to i) limited education about pregnancy, ii) poor eating habits and iii) stress caused by social stigma. Maternal health issues and disabilities
affect the mother’s health and productivity, and their quality of life. The mothers do not have appropriate resources to attend school or earn an income, hence feel disengaged from society because of the social stigma and are vulnerable to experiencing occupational alienation, leading
to the feeling of loss, low self-esteem and frustration.
What if they have internet access? Would things be different? A
initiative, Internet.org app, was launched to connect the communities that do not have Internet, allowing people to browse selected local health and employment information websites without data charges.
One of the apps – MAMA app includes pregnancy and maternal health information (such as
personalized health messages, reminders and warning signs). This could educate the pregnant teens on taking preventative measures for a safe pregnancy, therefore lowering the rates of maternal disability.
Components of our Artwork include telephone (direct availability of the internet), stethoscope (connection of the internet to the community), and plasma ball (the Zambian community of pregnant teen mothers). When the switch is turned on, the connecting plasma lines symbolize internet connectivity. The clear side of the plasma ball shows the benefits the internet has brought in overcoming maternal disabilities and perform meaningful occupations, and the dark side signifying the need for maternal health services.
Ashford, L. (2002).
Hidden Suffering: Disabilities from Pregnancy and Childbirth in Less Developed Countries.
Facebook (2014). Introducing the Internet.org App. Retrieved from
MAMA (2014). BabyCenter, MAMA & Praekelt Foundation Partner with Facebook to Provide Vital health Information to Mothers in Tanzania. Retrieved from
Ministry of Health (2000).
Reproductive Health Policy.
Townsend, E., & Wilcock, A. A. (2004). Occupational justice and Client-Centred Practice: A Dialogue in Progress.
Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
United Nations Population Fund (2012). Reaching Out to Women in Rural Zambia. Retrieved from
Dormino, M. (2010).
Child Receives Cholera Treatment in L’Estere, Haiti
. UNICEF, United Nations. Retrieved from
PharmAccess Foundation, Africa.
Harbers, R. (2013).
Gashora Girls Academy.
Ripple Effect Images,
DC. Retrieved from
Holtz, P. (2007).
School children in the Central African Republic.
Vakaga, Central African Republic
. Retrieved from
Mgbor, L. (2012).
The time is now – mums waiting for family planning services.
DFID- UK Department for International Development, United Kingdom. Retrieved from
Yates, R. (2010).
.DFID- UK Department for International Development, United Kingdom. Retrieved from
Zimbabwe use technology to improve healthcare in the country. (2013).
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TITLE: Seeing through a window of opportunity
ARTISTS: Rachel Biddiscombe & Ellen Marshall
MEASUREMENTS: 60x 74cm
MEDIUM USED: Canvas, acrylic paint, craft glue, digital print
In 2013, approximately 144,000 individuals in Cambodia were living with a vision impairment with cataracts responsible for 75% of cases. Malnutrition, lack of education, limited health services and poor sanitation are known causes for this unacceptably high rate of eye disease. Cataracts are characterised by a clouding of the lens in the eye that lead to severely impaired vision.
Vision impairment decreases the capacity of children to learn and attend school and reduces work opportunities and capacity for productivity in older individuals. This deprives individuals of full community engagement due to their inability to contribute, which potentially leads to an increased risk of depression and social isolation. However, individuals who receive successful cataract surgery experience greater visual acuity, increased likelihood of employment and improved quality of life.
Poverty and lack of education have been identified as major barriers for access to cataract surgery. Lack of access to eye care services, shortages of resources, poor infrastructure and limited education compound this issue. Improving individual productivity through the correction of cataracts enables individuals to contribute and engage with their community, thereby enhancing community capacity. Reducing the burden of eye disease can improve quality of life and confidence, empowering the community to improve overall health.
The Fred Hollows Foundation began to address vision impairment in Cambodia in 1998 through building capacity at an individual and community level and the creation of national ophthalmological networks. It delivers training and skill development for doctors and health care workers, upgrades infrastructure and offers funding for vital medical equipment in an attempt to provide sustainable solutions.
Agriculture in Laos (2012). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Cambodia Children running (2008). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Cambodia Tales (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Cambodians planting rice (2004). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Children’s game (2015). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Daily life on the Mekong (2015). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Education in Laos (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Khmer woman working in field (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Kindergarten (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Pixabay (2015). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Teacher and school children (2011). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Track and Field (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Women in Cambodia (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from:
Disabled People in Cages
Muqing Hu and Xiaomin Liang
68.5cm x 57cm x 33cm
Carboard, poster paper, paper, watercolour pencils, mixed media (artificial trees,stationery tape, double-side tap string, foamed materials).
Among developing countries, China has the largest number of disabled people (Hong, 2012). Although officials have taken actions to improve the living conditions of people with disabilities, they are still overlooked at a community level. Few programs regarding education, health care, employment and leisure activities have been conducted consistently in local communities for disabled people. Moreover, most of them have experienced difficulties in participating outdoor activities, especially for those on wheelchairs.
Our artwork takes leisure activities in communities as an example. It illustrates how disabled people are isolated from their local community and restricted from performing outdoor leisure activities. Locked in the cages represents that disabled people are not only unable to go out independently, but also unwilling to go out because of social exclusion. This is because when most communities were funded to build parks and exercise facilities, and to organize community activities to enrich people’s social life, the involvement of the disabled were not concerned. Moreover, poor design and maintenance of the existing accessible facilities, such as pathway and elevators, have kept them away from social participation. All of these factors have led to occupational deprivation.
In order to facilitate community involvement of disabled people and achieve occupational justice, it is essential to increase the social awareness of this vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is beneficial to involve community level individuals who care about the disability and disabled people themselves in decision-making and project design. Finally, the government should encourage more funding and cultivate more professionals for community rehabilitation.
Hong, Y. (2012). Community based rehabilitation in China: Conceptual framework, facts and future development. Retrieved 24 May, 2015, from
TITLE: Who Steal My Child?
ARTISTS: Senjie LI, Huimin YANG
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm X 35cm X 25cm
MEDIUM USED: Play doh, cardboard, glass bottles, paper
The International Labor Organization state that nearly 1.2 million children are abducted and trafficked every year. Some of them are subjected to illegal adaptation, some of them are subjected to human trafficking included child prostitution, child begging, child labor and child marriage.
The abducted children are separated from their parents and home countries. For those subjected into human trafficking, they are likely to be deprived from having education, which is against the rights of school age children. In addition, it is revealed that these children are commonly exposed to physical, verbal and sexual abuse, which may place prolonged negative impacts to their mental and physical health. For those parents, it is hard for them to step out of the shadow of losing child.
Economic incentives is one of the major reasons of child abduction. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. Some cultural factors also supporting the growth of child abduction. For example, in some rural areas in China, some couples who have difficulties having a baby, would “buy” a child from the human trafficker – NO BUYING, NO STEALING!
The left side of the artwork presents the abducted children are sold like goods, and are deprived of freedom. The right presents the lonely parents who lost their children, they never give up to seek their child, but seldom of them can find the lost children.
National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. (2013). 2013 Annual Report. Retrieved from
TC Beirne School of Law, The University of Queensland. (2010). Child Trafficking in Australian. Retrieved from
UNICEF Australia. (2013). Child Trafficking. Retrieved from
Brandon. C. W. (2010), We'll Forsake Our Ages and Pretend We Are Children [Photograph]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Flikr,
Falruz. O. (2009), Tears [Photograph]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Flikr,
Jammy. C. (2015), Stop Child Trafficking [Photograph]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Deviant Art,
Venetia. J. S. O. (2008), Cambodian girl [Photograph]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Flikr,
Venetia. J. S. O. (2009), Frame from poverty video venetia joubert cambodia thailand border [Photograph]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Flikr,
TITLE: Celebrating Community
ARTISTS: Xin Huang, Jiayin Li, Oriane Zarb
MEASUREMENTS: 60 x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography, cardboard, tissue paper.
We have chosen to examine celebration, and specifically, the celebration of Chinese New Year. While we don’t often think of celebration as an occupation, it is an important and meaningful activity that brings individuals into communities, creating a sense of belonging. Celebration creates a unique opportunity to gather with families and friends to acknowledge achievements and look forward to the future. The community knows and celebrates the traditions of New Year, and therefore plays a role in breaking down barriers in communities. The Chinese zodiac (生肖, shēng xiào) is one such tradition, where people decorate their home and streets with the animal of the year; everyone understands the animals and can share banter over it. Celebration therefore acts as a universal language that promotes connection and solidarity among individuals in the community.
We have taken 12 pictures to represent each of the zodiac animals. Each person had an individual photo taken to acknowledge his or her uniqueness. The 12 photos together represent a community formed by the individuals. During the photo taking people laughed and chatted about their zodiac animals, which was a vivid reflection of the role of traditions.
The projection of textures onto the person signifies the ‘projection’ of community onto the individual: while each individual is unique, they are exposed and thus influenced by the community’s culture. The centre image features traditional New Year rituals throughout the eras. This illustrates that while the way we celebrate New Years changes, the essence of tradition remains and is celebrated generation after generation. The red in this work represents good luck. The golden stands for fortune and forms the shape of a peace symbol, which signifies the classic Chinese New Year greeting ‘happiness and peace (富贵平安, fù guì pínɡ ān)’.
References for photos:
Junrong Zhou (1965). New Year’s Eve Flower Market in Guangzhou, 1965 [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from
Los Angeles Times (1928). Chinese New Year on Apablasa Street in L.A.’s Chinatown [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from
Diaspora: frustrated by a future in limbo
ARTISTS: Rosie Beadman & Katy Goura
MEASUREMENTS: 58cm x 55cm x 58cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media (canvas, fabric, plastic, cardboard, wood, string, collage, lit inside
Years of civil unrest in Syria have forced thousands to abandon their homes. An estimated 3 million Syrians have fled across the border to seek refuge in Jordan and Lebanon, and more than half are under the age of 18.
Reports have emerged of children being detained and tortured. They are confused, scared, and displaced from their home, school, family and friends. Their engagement in the typical occupations of children, such as education and play is disrupted. They are prohibited in their role as student and friend.
War-Child is a non-government organisation that has created child friendly ‘safe spaces’ for Syrian children who have fled to Lebanon. They offer a safe environment to resume learning, socialising and play. They provide much needed routine and counselling support to begin recovering from trauma.
Children take part in a life skills program, enabling them to express their emotions and cope with their experiences. The program aims to strengthen their resilience and enhance well-being, empowering them to re-engage in education and play. Caregivers are involved, enabling them to care for their child’s needs.
You are invited to peer into the tent. How does it make you feel? You may feel cramped and uncomfortable. The tent may appear inadequate. It may reinforce feelings of displacement, of lacking a real home, of a life in limbo. The soccer ball and book in brighter colours represent the opportunity created by ‘safe spaces’, to re- engage children and symbolise a way out of the despair for refugee children.
TITLE: Art of engagement brightens Bhothechaur
ARTISTS: Nayare Luna Wuth & Alison Jefferies
MEASUREMENTS: 420mm x 300mm
MEDIUM USED: Photography
A child should have the right to live in a safe environment, have access to food and water and a place to sleep and wash himself every day. Within this safe environment, a child should have the opportunity to engage in occupations meaningful to them, such as studying, playing and doing arts, which reflect their roles as a learner, friend and family member.
A major natural disaster, such as the earthquake in Nepal, changes the lives of the population in a matter of minutes. Many Nepalese children have lost their families, home and schools, creating displacement from their safe environment, disablement of meaningful occupation and disengagement from their usual roles.
The person in the picture represents a girl like many in Nepal, observing how their houses and schools are in ruins. Her dirty hands represent deprivation of water and access to a place to clean herself.
The image shows Bhothechaur in the background, a
, post earthquake. It is in black and white as a sign of destruction, hopelessness, and vulnerability.
Painting represents a meaningful occupation, and the use of colour on a black and white background shows how a meaningful occupation can promote resiliency, enabling skills for adaptation, coping and engaging. The bright yellow sun over the colourless picture of the village is an expression of engagement and participation between the children and their community, by doing a meaningful task to make their environment a better place.
Our work was inspired by an initiative created by the UNICEF and the Children’s Art Museum of Nepal (CAM), where children can participate in creative arts, giving them an opportunity to associate the earthquake with more positive memories, and a space where they can feel safe, cared for and appreciated." (The Huffington Post)
"We hope that they don’t lose their imagination and continue to draw, play, learn and just be children.
Sneha Shrestha, Founder of the program
"Some of these children have not had any of these experiences even before the earthquake occurred." "We hope that we are giving them an opportunity to associate the earthquake with more positive memories of a space where they feel safe, cared for and appreciated."
Nistha Shrestha, CAM’s director
Yam, Kimberley. (8th May 2015). After Earthquake, Kids in Nepal Heal Through Art.
Background picture by Russell Watkins, UK Department for International Development. Retrieved on May 18th from
With author’s permission to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and Adapt (Remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose.
TITLE: Auction of lost rights
ARTISTS: Pamela Ortiz & Cassandra Stanford
MEASUREMENTS: 60cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography, photoshop
The Yazidi religious minority community in Iraq have been targeted for their beliefs and have faced the possibility of genocide for centuries. Recently, with the advancement of the extremist group calling themselves the Islamic state of Iraq and Syria (or ISIS), the Yazidi community have been forced to flee to neighbouring countries. Those who could not escape endured some of the most unimaginable crimes against humanity, most men killed in cold blood and women suffering a fate worse than death. Several thousand Yazidi women and girls were captured and separated from their families in August 2014 (Wood, 2014). The women and girls were exposed to organised rape and assault from ISIS forces, some repeatedly bought and sold at ‘Sex slave auctions’.
The women and girls held captive have been stripped of their rights to engage in all aspects of life including education, work, play and social participation. This 21st century form of slavery and extreme occupational deprivation demeans these women and girls by treating them as objects at men’s disposal. The photograph shows young women with ropes tied around their wrists reflecting the forceful imprisonment of Yazidi women and girls. The words on the women’s chests highlight the areas of occupation that the women have lost. The aloof stance and vacant stare of the women represent the isolation and hopelessness caused as a result of this horrific deprivation of human rights whilst the barcodes on the women’s mouth alludes to the devaluing of women as meaningless products with no voice or say with what their future holds.
Wood, P. (2014, December 22). Islamic state: Yazidi women tell of sex-slavery trauma.
. Retrieved from,
A child’s right to the right nutrition
Climbing the beanstalk to Neverland
Stephanie Clements and Jessica Rupesinghe
29cm x 41cm
Watercolour paints, paper
What if you never had the chance to grow up, never had the potential to do well at school, get a job, or contribute to your community? For many Filipino children, this is a reality.
Malnutrition is the underlying cause of 35% of child deaths under five and stunted growth amongst one-third of children living in the Philippines. Decreased maternal nutrition and lack of education regarding a healthy diet are two key factors depriving children of the right nutrition in their first 1000 days of life. The damage of nutritional deprivation during this critical window from conception to 24 months is irreversible. In addition to physical deformities, children with stunted growth often have weakened immune systems and reduced intellectual, emotional and psychological capacity. Malnourishment can severely limit a child’s ability to grow, learn and play.
World Vision facilitates community-level care by providing nutritional education to expectant mothers. This promotes good nutritional practice, enabling mothers to give their child the right nutrition from the first of their 1000 days.
Our artwork draws upon the fairy tales of Jack and the Beanstalk and Peter Pan to depict the nutrition children need to reach their full potential. The plants represent a child’s growth, their roots signifying the mother’s nutritional knowledge that is a precursor to her child’s growth. Adequate nutritional knowledge leads to the development of healthy children that are seen climbing the beanstalk to reach Neverland; a place where they can thrive by playing, forming friendships and actively participating in their community.
Jimenez, M. (2015).
Vegetables and community participation: The fight against malnutrition in the Philippines
. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from
Childhood gone as the dragon rises
Xingying Chen, Yicheng Yu
560mm x 400mm
Paper, paint, cardboard, foam
China's rapid economic growth has also seen a drastic rise in the level of air pollution across the county. Due to heavy coal consumption, the level of pollutants in the air is now up to 40 times the recommended limit in major cities. While fine air particles pose threats to public health, the pollutants also strike fear into parents and schools over the health of children.
Because of the polluted air, the education bureaus advise students to stay indoors. Some schools are forced to cancel outdoor activities and field trips due to the poor air quality. Parents regularly confine their children to the house to prevent them from developing respiratory problems. However, there is still no government policy in place regulating pollutant emission. Due to ever-worsening air quality, children are restricted from participating in outdoor play. Consequently, children are deprived of opportunities to engage in activities that would stimulate physical and intellectual growth; whilst also impeding upon their opportunities to develop the social skills they would normally attain during outdoor play.
This artwork depicts the rising of a smog dragon. While the dragon symbolizes China and its rising economy, the smog rising from the surrounding factories that create this dragon illustrates the cost both nature and humans have to pay. The smog dragon hovers over the cityscape; its menacing presence forces children to seek safety in air-filtered classrooms. As children gaze at the playground, wishing for the next clear day, they are forced to find solace in their computer games.
TITLE: Se Correr o Bicho Pega, se Ficar o Bicho Come
"If you run the beast catches you. If you stay the beast eats you."
ARTISTS: Erik Stanclik, Amy Stuchfield
MEASUREMENTS: 530mm X 380mm
MEDIUM USED: Paper, Clay, Foam
Up to 6% of the Brazilian population live in slums, known as favelas, which are areas of extreme poverty. Favelas exist because of lack of affordable housing for the poor. Crowding, unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition and disease is rampant and infant mortality rates are high. There are also high rates of violence associated with gangs competing for control of the drug trade.
Due to unequal distribution of wealth, there is huge stigma associated with coming from a favela. Many employers will not hire favela people, resulting in favela residents being unemployed or in low-paying, unskilled jobs. Similarly, there is a lack of quality education and many kids have to leave school and work to help support their families or are sucked into crime/drugs by gangs of the favelas.
As a result of inequality and discrimination, people who live in favelas experience many occupational injustices in regards to work and education. They have little means to support themselves; continuing the cycle of poverty.
Due to insufficient opportunity to meet their occupational needs, they are also at risk of developing low self-esteem and a sense of powerlessness, thus leading to poor health and well-being.
Our artwork depicts the life in a favela; showing a tight-knit community that are trapped within the confines of their small world due to violence, poverty, and discrimination. Along the edges of the artwork is the beautiful Rio de Janeiro, nearby but out of reach of the discriminated residents of the favela.
“Christ the Redeemer overlooking Rio De Janeiro." by “Chronus" Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Generic (CC-BY3.0). Accessed 17 May 2015.
“Favela” by "dany13" Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC-BY2.0). Accessed 14 May 2015.
“O Drible” by "cassimano" Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC-BY2.0). Accessed 15 May 2015.
Photo accessed on 15 May 2015.
“Starving Children Waiting” by "jambogyuri” Licensed under CC0 Public Domain. Accessed 14 May 2015.
Dreams of the few, hope for the many
Aleksandra Babic and Candice McIntyre
38 x 50cm
Mixed Medium (pencil, paint, charcoal crayons) on Paper.
This artwork illustrates two themes: the adverse living conditions of street kids in Zimbabwe, and the influence of community development on the occupational wellbeing of these children. On top of the basic struggle for survival, these children have reduced occupational engagement and wellbeing due to their living conditions and lack of access to health, education, housing and employment resources, as well as economic and social support.
We aimed to illustrate the impact of community development on occupational engagement, and how with the help of projects such as VANA, street children are given the opportunity to dream and to have these dreams come true. The VANA Childcare Development Program is a holistic care project that has been rescuing orphans and other vulnerable children from a hopeless life on the streets and providing them with the means for a future.
The impact of community development is expressed through the journey of these children being congruent with reading direction, i.e. the dark, oppressive conditions are on the left, while the road leads the viewer’s eye to the right, where hope and promise are indicated through balloons with children’s dreams, as well as the use of colour. In this example, the hand signifies community, and the effect this can have on the children. On the left side, the community conditions result in negative effects of oppression and occupational injustice, whereas on the right, the community are supporting and ‘lifting’ the children - much like the work of the VANA program.
TITLE: Vancouver: Enabling Liveable Leisure
ARTISTS: Hayley Colcomb and Wesley Brightman
60cm x 60cm
Our health is not just a by-product of how we live; it’s also about
we live. A truly healthy city makes it easy for residents to adopt a healthful lifestyle, whether it is by providing quality health care, encouraging preventative medicine or reducing air pollution. However, a healthy community results from government
Vancouver, Canada is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for quality of life and has been acknowledged as the first city to rank among the top ten of the world’s most liveable cities for five consecutive years (EIU, 2014).The liveability concept evaluates which places around the world supply the most/least desirable living conditions (EIU, 2014).
Greater Vancouver consistently [ranks] high among the world’s cities because of its clean environment, range of housing choices, lively but safe streets, outstanding outdoor recreation opportunities, diverse but peaceful population and excellent public services” (Cameron & Harcourt, 2009, p. 5). This artwork displays Vancouver’s cultural and environmental factors and how they affect occupational engagement in leisure activities.
With a dense downtown, a strong public transportation system and miles of bike lanes, Vancouver is the most walkable city in Canada (Walk Score, 2015). This shift away from a car-centred culture, plus strict environmental standards for buildings and businesses and a natural environment marked by evergreen forests and ocean breezes, means Vancouver’s air is continually purified. The mild climate, clean ocean and vast mountains combine to make Vancouver the ultimate year-round playground with unparalleled access.
Cameron, K., & Harcourt, M. (2009).
City making in paradise: Nine decisions that saved Vancouver.
Vancouver, BC: D&M Publishers Inc.
The Economist Intelligence Unit, (2014). A summary of the liveability ranking and overview. Retrieved from
Walk Score. (2015).
Living in Vancouver.
‘Transitional’ Somali-Bantu Women Refugees
Kimberley Ciardi (307 170 721) & Stefanie Matuszyk (311 133 924)
58cm (w) x 38cm (h) x 2cm (d)
Canvas, oil and acrylic paints, fabric, paper, cotton wool,
natural organic material (sticks, sand) and digital image silhouettes.
The artwork represents the successful adaptation of ‘transitional’ Somali-Bantu women refugees in Lewiston, Maine, where hundreds have resettled despite the occupational injustice they face.
The artwork is divided into five sections- (1) home in Somalia, (2) outbreak of civil war in Somalia, occupational disruption, (3) displacement, refugee, (4) transitioning into a new life, and (5) resettlement in Maine and the future with the support of the Somali-Bantu community in Lewiston.
Traditionally, the Somali-Bantu are subsistence farmers but civil war has caused disruption of this primary occupation. For Somali-Bantu women, displacement and resettlement has resulted in occupational deprivation, the loss of family, roles, language, culture, tradition and identity. US laws prohibiting polygamous marriages have forced the separation of countless Somali-Bantu women from their husbands resulting in the breakdown of ancestral family structures and support systems, and the experience of occupational marginalisation. Compounding the emotional costs of being forced to leave home, Somali-Bantu women have had to withstand racism, discrimination, lack of transport and money, and occupational alienation- all of which are barriers to purposeful occupational adaptation.
The Somali-Bantu women have effectively utilised their skills in traditional Bantu agriculture and subsistence farming to grow and sell crops in Maine, and re-establish themselves as a main/sole income earner. These women have adapted to their changing occupations, roles and identities by forming social support groups in Lewiston. The Somali-Bantu in Lewiston work together to strengthen and empower their community through programs and initiatives aimed at providing housing, education, employment and economic independence, health care and transportation.
I know I can do it if you let me try!
Huibing Goh and Roxanne Sher May Ong
45cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: C
anvas, cans, paper, cardboard, photos, sports items
Mongolia has a population of about 2.8 million people, which include 115000 people with a disability and about 10% have an intellectual disability (CRPD, 2011).
In Mongolia, individuals with an intellectual disability rarely participate in public sporting activities due to various obstacles. The lack of sporting activity development, poor infrastructure of sports facilities, insufficient funds, and shortage of coaches are all environmental barriers for sports participation. Personal factors such as limited communication abilities and cognitive deficits can reduce interaction with coaches, other athletes and may impede the comprehension of instructions and of game strategies. Young children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities are known to be “hidden”, live with limited occupation choices and experience little community participation.
Special Olympics Mongolia was started in 2013 and currently has 100 participants in its sports programs and services (Special Olympics, 2015). The organisation works closely with the government, is developing family support networks and has recently worked with local special schools to organize a national competition, which provided participation opportunities for individuals with intellectual disabilities while increasing public awareness.
The five colours of the “Olympic pillars” are to represent the Olympic spirit, “The most important thing is not to win but to take part.” The sports silhouettes represent a potentially enhanced participation in a variety of sports and leisure for these individuals in Mongolia through advocacy efforts and supports.
In order to achieve inclusion, there is still more effort needed to transition and integrate these individuals into other areas such as education and employment.
Special Olympics. (2015).
Mongolia Fact Sheet
. Retrieved May 16, 2015 from
United Nations – Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). (2011).
Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under article 35 of the convention
. Retrieved May 18, 2015 from
Links to Free Images:
TITLE: "Mountains of Little Feet"
Shing Ha (Summer) Cheung
Mixed Media onWooden Board
On 12th May 2008, a destructive 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan province in the mountainous region of China, causing approximately 87,000 fatalities.
One of the most impacted areas were schools, with approximately 7000 school buildings collapsing. It is estimated that there are fewer than 100 occupational therapists in China, which makes continued rehabilitation efforts challenging, considering the high level of need.
Despite shortages in available services some encouraging initiatives are assisting China in responding effectively to natural disasters. One such initiative is a joint project between two universities in China to provide rehabilitation services including but not limited to: Prosthetic limbs, wheelchairs, exercise programs and environmental modifications to assist people in regaining physical independence. Services have also extended beyond physical rehabilitation into psychological counselling, and providing clinical support for children and their families. These innovative rehabilitation services have assisted children in re-gaining independence and re-engaging in the meaningful occupations and roles they need and want to do.
The outcomes of this rehabilitation service are represented in our display. The feet represent the resilience of the earthquake survivors, who are slowly regaining independence and returning to school and everyday activities. The feet are emerging from the barriers and trauma of the earthquake and back into meaningful activities such as school, leisure and learning. The ascending bamboo structure and pebble paths represent regrowth and transition from trauma into hope.
Through this tragedy there has emerged a hope for the future, as symbolised by the resilience of children who have willingly returned to school and re-embraced their meaningful roles.
“The human capacity for burden is like bamboo - far more flexible than you'd ever believe at first glance.”
Kenneth, F. (2008). Rehabilitation After the Sichuan Earthquake: Can We Follow the Way?.
Hong Kong Journal Of Occupational Therapy
. Retrieved from
New York Times. (2009).
. Retrieved 10 May 2015, from
Sichuan University. (2008).
Reconstruction Support and Research Center
. Retrieved 10 May 2015, from
Quote from: Picoult, J. (2005).
My Sister’s Keeper.
New York: Washington Square Press.
TITLE: 'The Prison within the Prison'
Monica Qiao, Neeraj Hansji, and Cameron Small
MEASUREMENTS (in cm):
30.5 x 30.5 x 13
Canvas, cardboard, wood, acrylic and spray paint, wire, plasticine, metal chain, coloured soft pastels, throat lozenges, vitamins, prescription drugs, band aids, glue.
Imagine being locked away in a room no larger than a king-sized bed. Now imagine being in this room for 23 hours a day. Every day. In isolation; denied any form of social interaction; and deprived of any
form of meaningful activity. This is solitary confinement, and its practice has found its home in prisons and places of detention all over the world. For an estimated 80,000 people in the United States, this is their daily life. What’s more, solitary confinement is not limited to the most culpable offenders. Its use extends to juveniles and adolescents. Although thought to be a progressive form of rehabilitation 200 years ago, more recently, it has been considered a form of torture and thought to be a violation of human rights. Its practice has been linked to psychological trauma, and is more likely to result in mental illness than rehabilitation.
This artwork depicts the human mind as the prisoner, chained and located centrally, confined within 4 walls. The inner walls, coloured black, highlight the extent of solitary confinement, whereby the mind is starved of all sensory input and engagement with any form of occupation. In contrast, the outer walls depict the basic fundamental human rights of which the prisoner is deprived - the outside world; the right to an education; access to basic healthcare and; social interaction in the form of friends and family. These prisoners have broken the law, but do their crimes really justify this form of torturous deprivation ?
: All I Have I Am
: Mary Johnstone and Maidei Machina
: 60 x 47 x 55
: photograph, paper, suitcase, shoes, clothing, tennis racket, tennis balls, stickers, chalk, pot-plant, secateurs, stethoscope, blood pressure pump
Increasing refugee intake does not have popular support across Europe. A sentiment vehement expressed by a mainstream journalist advocating the use of ‘“gunboats” on these “cockroaches”. The result is the rise of right-wing anti-immigration political parties and the associated restriction of refugee quotas by centralist political parties. Despite the restriction of official entrances into Europe,
an estimated 36,800 asylum seekers of African and Middle Eastern origin have made desperate attempts to travel to Europe by way of crossing the Mediterranean on unsafe and dilapidated boats since the beginning of 2015.
For many the risk of this treacherous journey is worth the promise of a brighter future in Europe no matter how uncertain that future.
Our artwork illustrates that although asylum seekers often enter new countries with meager and battered material possessions; they also carry their talents, professional skills and knowledge can enable them to engage in meaningful occupations. This suitcase contains some of the objects and tools that former refugees and current European residents use to contribute to European society. If granted asylum status, refugees can make valuable contributions to European communities and enrich their own lives. Engagement in everyday occupations that are meaningful and purposeful promotes the health and well-being of the individual. Meanwhile, countries benefit from community members who are determined, have new perspectives and experiences.
Choices are mine to make.
Chih Yan Tiffany Cheung and Phoebe Hiu Ming Wong
40cm x 15cm x 30cm
Metal wire, wool, cardboard box, paint, mixed media (photo collage and text), recycled cereal box, strings and plastic wrap.
Young adolescent girls in Malawi have been vulnerable to the harmful traditional practices of being forced into sexual initiation camps in preparation for early marriages. In February 2015, Malawi passed a new law that bans child marriage by raising the legal age of marriage. However, this is ineffective since underage marriage remain possible with parental consent.
These girls deserve a supportive environment that gives them control over their education, their body and sexual life instead of having it all jeopardised due to early marriage. They are deprived of a proper childhood and education, and are faced with the risks of serious childbirth injuries, domestic and sexual violence, and death. Poverty, traditional rituals, gender-based violence and inequality have been the driving factors that not only erode the girls’ physical and mental health, but also terminate their school and social life at a young age, losing their roles as daughters and students. The lack of financial support and opportunity to participate in meaningful activities ultimately lead to social exclusion, leaving marriage as their last resort.
The girls are represented by the hands on the Malawian flag, and the ‘Life Controller’ symbolises their decision rights. Their lack of power is portrayed by the smaller hands placed under a black opaque ceiling, which completely blocks them from the controller. Hands under the grey and white ceiling represent the government’s recent action towards the issue. The largest hand represents their hope of breaking through the transparent ceiling to take control of their own lives.
Africa Speaks 4 Africa. (2015),
Africa: Child marriage around the world
[Photograph]. Retrieved 3 May, 2015, from Africa Speaks 4 Africa
Dunning, D., & Mkandawire, J. (2015). How girl activists helped to ban child marriage in Malawi.
Robertson, G. (2015),
Girls in Malawi are a step closer to growing up without the threat of marriage and adolescence
[Photograph]. Retrieved 3 May, 2015, from The Guardian
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