2016 Artwork and Abstracts


Title: Without Education
Artists: Penelope Noble and Alice Kettle
Measurements: 60cm x 60cm
Medium used: Mixed media including cardboard, paper crèche, chalk, rice.

Approximately 30% of children between 6 and 14 years of age in India are not able to attend school and receive an education. The main factor contributing to this problem is poverty with many children in underprivileged families required to work in order to support their family financially. This injustice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu, a state of India, where recent reports have found 125 000 child labourers work in various sectors consequently preventing children from attending school.
Young girls are more at risk of having to work and therefore miss out on an opportunity to attend school as social traditions see males as a higher priority in receiving education. Whilst poverty is a main factor, the lack of adequate schooling and teachers in rural areas also contributes to poor access to education.
This artwork depicts a young Indian girl carrying rice on her head whilst a school blackboard is held in her other hand. The textiles and colour of the cardboard and paper crèche as well as the blackboard are used to emphasise primary education as these materials are commonly used within classrooms. Rice represents the work this young girl takes part in as child labourer as this is a common area in Tamil Nadu. The juxtaposition of the rice being placed on top of the girl’s head and the blackboard being held at the bottom illustrates the uneven balance between prioritising labour to provide for the family compared to the right for a child to access basic education. The face of the young girl is blank demonstrating the lack of choice young children have in being able to attend school as it is often the result of inadequate school resources and the need for the family to be financially supported.

Sivarajah, P (2012, May 1). Over 50, 000 kids from south Tamil Nadu deployed as child labour.
The Times of India. Retrieved from, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/madurai/Over-50000-kids-from-south-Tamil-Nadu-deployed-as-child-labour/articleshow/12944715.cms

Smile Foundation India. (n.d.). Quality Education. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www.smilefoundationindia.org/quality_education.htm

Smile Foundation India. (n.d.). Children In India. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www.smilefoundationindia.org/Education_for_Poor_Children.htm

Ainsley Chapman and Rebecca Camilleri.jpg

TITLE: Wasted Education

ARTISTS: Ainsley Chapman and Rebecca Camilleri
MEASUREMENTS: 60 cm x 43 cm
MEDIUM USED: Canvas, photographs and acrylic paint

Around 200,000 Iranian children are homeless, living on the streets, parks or homeless shelters, experiencing fear, instability and insecurity. They are exposed to dangerous circumstances including harsh weather conditions, drugs, alcohol, illegal prostitution and underage employment.

Economic hardships, crisis, natural disasters, parental encouragement to leave home and/or substance abuse all contribute to children becoming homeless. Other children choose to leave their home to escape physical, social and/or emotional abuse towards them or other family members.

Every child has the human right to participate in learning. This is the main occupation for children as it expands their physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. However, homeless children are deprived of this human right due to unfavourable social determinants including lack of resources, funds, transport and social supports. Moreover, children living in shelters experience disruption and exclusion to participate in education opportunities. Shelters and temporary accommodation are often unavailable in the school districts, resulting in multiple school transfers, poor school attendance and decreased education continuity. Furthermore, education disruption occurs as children are forced to participate in employment to meet survival needs and family home demands. They also lack resources and space to complete homework, thus restricting opportunities to extend their knowledge. A lack of education restricts the child to gain future, more sustainable employment, thus leading to a cycle of poverty.

The bleaker, darker photos on the left contrast with the bright, coloured photos to demonstrate the extreme difference in lifestyles of a homeless child to that of a child with a home. The dark colours present feelings of sadness, abandonment and fear while the bright colours evoke feelings of happiness, inclusion and success. The two heads are identical, demonstrating how two children the same age should be provided with the same human rights, however are have access to different opportunities based on their living environment.


Chapparo, C. & Lowe, S (2012). School: Participating in more than just the classroom. In A. C. Bunday, & S. Lowe (Eds.), Kids can be kids: A childhood occupations approach. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Chittooran, M. M., & Chittooran, J. T. (2013). Homeless children in the schools. National Association of School Psychologists. Communique, 42(2), 24.

Dejman, M., Vameghi, M., Roshanfekr, P., Dejman, F., Rafiey, H., Forouzan, A. S.. . Johnson, R. M. (2015). Drug use among street children in tehran, iran: A qualitative study. Frontiers in Public Health, 3, 279. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2015.00279

Iran: More than 1,600 homeless children rescued from tehran busterminals. (2000, ). BBC Monitoring Middle East - Political

Moore, T., & McArthur, M. (2011). 'good for kids' : Children who have been homeless talk about school.Australian Journal of Education, 55(2), 147-160. doi:10.1177/000494411105500205

Stagnitti, K., &, Unsworth, C. (2000). The importance of pretend play in child development: An occupational therapy perspective. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(3), 121-127. doi:10.1177/030802260006300306
Carrie-Anne and Kaila artwork.jpg
TITLE: The Casualties Of War For Sudanese Child Soldiers
ARTISTS: Carrie-Anne Hourigan and Kaila Rodriguez
MEASUREMENTS: 37cm (height)x 52cm (width) x 4.2cm (depth)
MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media
  • Pencil and texta drawing on paper and glass
  • Paper Collage

South Sudan’s current political civil war began in December 2013(Human Rights Watch, 2015) . The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) approximated 15,000 children were enlisted in rival militaries in 2015 by forceful enlistment or voluntary enlistment to ensure the safety of themselves and their families (Human Rights Watch, 2015; McGee, 2015).

Being enlisted, as a child soldier is an occupational injustice, depriving children from occupations, roles and environments that nurture child development; such as player, learner and family member roles depicted within the artwork. Consequently they are exposed to torture, violence, oppressed learning opportunities and loss of kinship. This may cause long-term developmental challenges due to: their limited capacity to understand their experiences; physical/psychological suffering; challenged beliefs, and underdevelopment of basic skills (SantaBarbara, 2006; Schauer & Elbert, n.d.). The artwork represents the distance between a child’s expected roles that are lurking shadows in their reality of fulfilling a solider role amongst adults in a killing field. The artwork highlights how a child does not assimilate as a soldier due to their age, as well as, the long-term disassociation between them and their childhood occupations due to developmental and environmental impacts, and family dynamic revisions, caused by war. Additional supports to assimilate back into their previous environment are required but are currently financially and politically inaccessible. This injustice violates key international child rights under the ‘Convention on the Right of the Child’. However political anarchy restricts the political and legal efficacy of organizations attempting to rectify the injustice (Unicef, 2014) .


Human Rights Watch (Producer). (2015). "We can die too" recruitment and the use of child soldiers in south sudan. Retrieved from https:http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/southsudan1215_4.pdf//

McGee, C. (2015). South Sudan: 15,000 children recruited to fight. War and conflict. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/12/south-sudan-15000-children-recruited-fight-151215143752222.html

Santa Barbara, Joanna. (2006). Impact of War on Children and Imperative to End War. Croatian medical journal, 47(6), 891-894.

Schauer, E., & Elbert, T. (n.d). Chapter 14. the psychological impact of child soldiering. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/missing-peace/The psychological impact of child soldiering - Schauer.pdf

Unicef. (2014). The rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30177.html

TITLE: Down-caste
ARTISTS: Elissa Burleigh and Emily Limbers
MEASUREMENTS: 60cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography on foam board

The caste system in India is a hierarchy in which a person’s social status is determined by the caste (class) into which they are born. Dalits, or Untouchables, are the group with the lowest social status, and are not considered to be part of the caste system, but rather beneath it. Although this system was outlawed in 1950, discrimination towards Dalits remains prevalent, especially in rural India.

Dalits experience occupational marginalization, as invisible cultural norms dictate the occupations in which they can engage. They are restricted from skilled and/or influential occupations, such as politicians or teachers, instead working menial jobs like toilet-cleaners. These restrictions ultimately lead to occupational deprivation, as Dalits cannot choose to participate in occupations that are necessary or meaningful. For example, the distribution of resources, such as infrastructure for running water, are often prioritised to districts where higher castes reside. This, in combination with social barriers preventing sharing of resources between castes, results in Dalits being deprived of important occupations such as self-care and cooking.

The tree in our artwork represents the caste system. The upper castes, represented by the canopy, have direct access to the suns nourishing rays, which represents India’s resources. The roots represent Dalits, who are only exposed to the few rays, or resources, that are not used and/or blocked by the canopy. Most roots lie underground, while some have broken through, representing the struggle of Dalits to escape their low social status. A Dalit woman is shown from two perspectives: the larger figure represents Dalits standing against the discrimination which has oppressed them; while the crouching figure illustrates how many Dalits remain unable to escape from their roots.

Durocher, E., Gibson, B., & Rappolt, S. (2014). Occupational justice: A conceptual review. Journal of Occupational Science, 21(4), 418-430. doi:10.1080/14427591.2013.775692

Human Rights Watch (2001). Background “untouchability” and segregation. Retrieved May 11, 2011, from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/globalcaste/caste0801-03.htm#P131_16327
TITLE: No Access
ARTISTS: Harriet Davis, Vivian Chan and Daniel Phung
MEASUREMENTS: 40cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media - canvas, paint, found objects, cardboard and fabric


If you cringe at the word, then you are like the many others who contribute to the restrictions and deprivation placed on many adolescent girls in rural India. Menstruation is a socially taboo topic in India, which creates a lack of understanding and awareness amongst the population. Menstruating girls are considered contaminated and impure! This is further exacerbated when 88% of females are unable to manage their periods due to no access to sanitary materials, hygienic disposable units, or running water. In response, they choose to disengage with their primary occupations in order to avoid being subject to shame, and ridicule.

Our artwork depicts the correlation between the inability of adolescent girls to manage menstruation and the subsequent occupational restrictions of their student role: to play; participate in extra-curricular activities such as sport; and religious practices (predominantly Hinduism). It is known that 23% of girls decide to discontinue school all together once they experience their first period. Of the girls who continue school, absentee rates are significantly higher, accumulating to miss over 8 months of school within 3 years due to menstruation. Further restrictions placed on occupations central to their identity include prohibition to attend places of worship or visiting sacred rooms. For the 3 to 7 days of menstruation girls are also unable to participate in sporting commitments or other extra-circular activities.

These factors: stigmatisation; social restrictions; and no access to sanitary materials not only impacts the girl’s future but also the country’s. The lasting effects of this occupational deprivation include women continuing to attain lower levels of education and engagement in the workforce in comparison to their male counterparts, hence influencing the socio-economic status of rural India.

Das, P., Baker, K. K., Dutta, A., Swain, T., Sahoo, S., Das, B. S., . . . Torondel, B. (2015). Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India: e0130777. 10(6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130777

Dasgupta, A., & Sarkar, M. (2008). Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl? Indian Journal of Community Med, 33, pp77-80. Retrieved from http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2008/33/2/77/40872

Shah, S. P., Nair, R., Shah, P. P., Modi, D. K., Desai, S. A., & Desai, L. (2013). Improving quality of life with new menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent tribal girls in rural Gujarat, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 205-213. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(13)41691-9

Sinha, K. (2011). 70% can't afford sanitary napkins, reveals study. Accessed: 20th of May, 2016, Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india.70-cant-afford-sanitary-napkind-reveals-study/articleshow/7344998.cms

Van Eijk, A. M., Sivakami, M., Thakkar, M. B., Bauman, A., Laserson, K. F., Coates, S., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2016). Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 6(3), e010290.
TITLE: Transgressive Border Crossing
ARTISTS: Anita Ao and Christine Lee
MEASUREMENTS: 42cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography

Every minute two children become victims of human trafficking making it the fastest growing global crime and second largest source of illegal income. The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) outlines three constituent elements of trafficking:

i. Act – recruitment and transportation of person

ii. Means – threat/use of coercion and abduction

iii. Purpose – victim exploitation for profit (United Nations Human Rights, 2014).

China is an example of this conundrum with approximately 250,000 victims of trafficking per year (Hendrix, 2010). The kidnapping and sale of young girls for forced marriage is increasing and accounts for 30-90% of marriages in some villages (Lee, 2005). Poverty and traditional preference for male offspring exacerbated by the government’s decade-long one-child-policy have attributed to gender imbalance where men resort to purchasing kidnapped brides for $250-$800 USD (Yik-Yi Chu, 2011).

Many young, illiterate and penurious females fall victim to trafficking are marginalised from education, employment and self-determination hence denying them the opportunity to participate in meaningful occupations. They are left feeling disconnected from their identity through subjection to gender-based discrimination and violence promoting them as an object.

Traffickers have a vested interest in their victims’ arrival. The presence of the two figures exchanging renminbi (RMB ¥) between the subject enclosed in the luggage in our photograph illustrates the completion of trafficking and commencement of exploitation. Her mouth is taped with a barcode, conveying the notion that victims are voiceless who live their life as someone’s property. Her innocence is highlighted as she clings onto her teddy prior to her role as a child being robbed. The faceless figures beside her suggest how anybody could be behind the trafficking of human lives.

Hendrix, M. C. (2010). Enforcing the U.S. trafficking victims protection act in emerging markets: The challenge of affecting change in India and China. Cornell International Law Journal, 43(1), 173.

Lee, J. J. H. (2005). Human Trafficking in East Asia: Current Trends, Data Collection, and Knowledge Gaps. International Migration, 43(1-2), 165-201. doi: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00317.x

United Nations Human Rights. (2014). Human rights and human trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FS36_en.pdf

Yik-Yi Chu, C. (2011). Human Trafficking and Smuggling in China. Journal of Contemporary China, 20(68), 39-52. doi: 10.1080/10670564.2011.520842
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TITLE: Not Available In Your Region
ARTISTS: Claire Andreoli and Nicola Danes
MEASUREMENTS: 30 Height X 25 length X 30 Width
MEDIUMS USED: Mixed media – glass, stainless steel, porcelain, paper, dirt and water.

According to the “Cost of Hunger in Africa” report, approximately 67% of the adult population in Ethiopia suffered from stunted growth as children, as a result of undernourishment in early childhood. The high demand for livestock products in wealthy westernised countries is contributing to the depletion of resources in developing countries such as Ethiopia, as well as perpetuating poverty and hunger. Therefore, this highlights a human rights injustice within the Ethiopian community as they have less accessibility to their resources than more developed countries. Put simply, Ethiopia is less important.

Ethiopia holds one of the largest herds in the world, estimated at 50 million cattle. These animals are unnecessarily consuming one fourth of all grains produced by Ethiopia, as well as a significant portion of their food and water. In addition, raising cattle has depleted more than two thirds of Ethiopia’s topsoil. Eventually, these livestock are killed and the products are exported. The hunger in Ethiopia, stunting the growth of their children, is fuelled by this huge global demand for animal products in the developed world.

This artwork conveys the idea that although local resources are within close reach and there is sustainable food and water for the population of Ethiopia, they are “not available in their region” as per menu. Ethiopian’s obviously do not eat meals with the dinner set displayed, however this is symbolic of the Western governments “band-aid” solution to extreme hunger, providing a façade that “we are helping!” while their stomachs and wallets overflow.

“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, not every man’s greed” – Mahatama Ghandi

African Union Commission. (2012). The cost of hunger in Ethiopia: Summary report. Commissioned by the World Food Programme. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Author.

Oppenlander, R. (2012, April, 22). The World Hunger-Food Choice Connection: A Summary [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/the-world-hunger-food-choice-connection-a-summary/
TITLE: Left Neglected
ARTISTS: Rebecca Goetz and Emma South
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Acrylic and wax on canvas

The Musanze district, located in the rural parts of Rwanda, is home to over 350000 people, however lacks sufficient health services to meet the needs of individuals post-stroke. Whilst there is limited statistical data regarding the prevelance of stroke in this district, research suggests that stroke survivors are subject to many social, physical and attitudinal barriers affecting their ability to participate in everyday life, which for over 91% of residents involves agricultural occupations (Urimubenshi & Rhoda, 2011)(Urimubenshi, 2015).

Environmental barriers (i.e. rocky pathways) often result in occupational deprivation for stroke survivors within this community, unable to access environments needed to fufill life roles. Stigma, misconceptions, and a lack of understanding also contribute to occupational alienation, where individuals post-stroke often become isolated and withdrawn from society, reducing the potential for rehabilitation and leading to diminished quality of life (Hare et al., 2008)(Salter et al., 2008).

Our artwork reflects this occupational injustice, within a society that neglects the potential for occupational engagement post-stroke. This intrinsic potential and desire for occupational engagement is represented by the plethora of colours within the subjects head, with the dripping wax on one half of the subjects face alluding to a post-stroke left palsy, as well as the loss of identity individuals face post-stroke. The white background symbolises the biomedical clinical viewpoint of stroke survivors (disabled and lacking function); the red splatters, portray stigmatising beliefs about stroke (i.e. stroke occurred due to karma or a punishment from God); and the brown border represents a window, conveying the isolation survivors feel, unable to fully connect with their community due to societal and environmental constraints.

Brinkhoff, T. (2014). Musanze District. Retrieved 23 May, 2016, from: http://www.citypopulation.de/php/rwanda-admin.php?adm2id=43

Hare, R., Rogers, H., Lester, H., McManus, R., & Mant, J. (2006). What do stroke patients and their carers want from community services? Family Practice, 23(1), 131-136. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmi098

Salter, K., Hellings, C., Foley, N., Teasell, R. (2008). The experience of living with stroke: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 40(8), 595-602.

Urimubenshi, G., & Rhoda, A. (2011). Environmental barriers experienced by stroke patients in Musanze district in Rwanda: A descriptive qualitative study. African Health Sciences, 11(3), 398-406.

Urimubenshi, G. (2015). Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda. African Health Sciences, 15(3), 917-924. doi:10.4314/ahs.v15i3.28
TITLE: I Dream of School
ARTISTS: Olivia Margaret Miller and Matthew Wei Jin Ho
MEASUREMENTS: 36cm x 28cm
MEDIUM USED: Photoshopped photographs on faux canvas

Poverty is seen throughout Cambodia. In 2011, 10% of Cambodians lived below the poverty line of US$1.25 per day, and 41% of the population lived on less than US$3.00 per day (Asian Development Bank, 2014). Some Cambodian families force their children to beg on the streets or sell goods instead of attending school, posing serious dangers and risk of exploitation. The main determinant of this occurrence is a lack of family income, whereby children participate in inappropriate occupations to help support their family to make ends meet.

We have conveyed various natures of occupational injustices, emphasising the occurrence of children not being allowed to attend and participate in school. The typical roles of a ‘worker’, ‘learner’, ‘player’ and ‘friend’ that a school nurtures and facilitates are not fulfilled. This creates occupational deprivation, as external factors are limiting the child’s ability to participate in meaningful occupations performed in these valued roles. Denying opportunities to participate in school, limits future employment prospects resulting in occupational marginalisation, as fewer work opportunities will be available to them. The combination of these occupational injustices can impact on a child’s wellbeing and continue to affect them into adulthood, as they are being denied the ability to learn skills that are essential in the development process.

Our artwork illustrates these occupational injustices by juxtaposing an image of a child begging with another image of a child engaging in the learner role at school. The vector of the child begging, drawing to the right-hand side of the artwork highlights the needs and wants of most children; to go to school to work, learn, and play. This is further emphasised by the two children meeting together to become one.

Asian Development Bank. (2014). Cambodia Country Poverty Analysis 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/151706/cambodia-country-poverty-analysis-2014.pdf
TITLE: Modern-day slavery in India’s brick kiln industry
ARTISTS: Caitlin Garment & Lisa Taylor
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm X 50cm X 30cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media - wooden base, wooden block, clay, rocks, textiles, cardboard, paper, spray paint

In India, where a caste system perpetuates cyclical intergenerational poverty – workers barely earn enough to survive, leaving them without savings, and thus vulnerable to economic shocks. Many are compelled to take out bonded labour loans – a form of advanced payment that is used for basic medical needs, marriage dowries, housing or even food. A common source of these loans are brick kiln operators.

Each year, over 23 million people are recruited to work in Indian brick kilns. Debt is paid off on a per-brick basis. Owners add daily charges for accommodation and food to the debt, causing it to increase exponentially without hope of paying off the loan principal. Even if the worker has managed to clear their own debt, family debt is then assumed – tying workers to perpetual bondage, akin to modern-day slavery.

Men, women and children living in kilns are exposed to hazardous working and living conditions. Most have little knowledge of their basic rights and labour laws, and risk violent retribution upon seeking help or speaking to authorities.

In our artwork chains made of rupees connect family members, symbolising slavery and intergenerational debt bondage. The brick stack represents 10,800 bricks – the average weekly volume produced by a family of three working 14-17 hours a day, 6 days a week. For this, they earn 500 rupees (approximately $12 Australian dollars). The kiln is fuelled by schoolbooks, representing sacrificed education (often the only hope for a family to escape cyclical disadvantage). The words accompanying the plume of smoke are examples of rights withheld from the workers.

Anti-Slavery - Bonded labour in India's Brick Kilns. (2016). Anti-slavery International Retrieved 14 May 2016, from http://www.antislavery.org/english/slavery_today/bonded_labour/bonded_labour_in_indias_brick_kilns/default.aspx

Bhukuth, A. (2005). Child Labour and Debt Bondage: A Case Study of Brick Kiln Workers in Southeast India. Journal Of Asian And African Studies, 40(4), 287-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021909605055776

Forced labour in the brick kiln industry in India. (2015) (pp. 1-8). London. Retrieved from http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2015/f/forced_labour_in_brick_kilns_in_india_august_2015_briefing.pdf

Menon, S. & John, J. (2014). Brick Kiln Workers in India: Migrating into Bondage. Labour File, 9(1-2), 3-38.
Artwork flower side Sarah Sarah.JPGArtwork flower top Sarah Sarah 2.JPG_20160526_114348.JPG
TITLE: The Hidden Issue
ARTISTS: Sarah Boutros and Sarah Fung
MEASUREMENTS: 57cm x 57cm x 25cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media(cake board, felt, ribbon, photograph paper, padlock and serving basket)

Pasung is a practice present in Indonesia which involves chaining individuals with mental illness in cages and rooms. People are forced to perform basic occupations of eating, urinating, defecating and sleeping within this confined space. Occupational injustice occurs through their inability to access basic human rights of healthcare and engagement in meaningful occupations, roles and relationships within the community. Their resulting loss of identity is represented by the empty cage.

Pasung was banned in Indonesia in 1977, however 18,800 people still live under these conditions. The misunderstanding of mental illness stems from the stigma, cultural beliefs and lack of health education. It is believed that mental illness is punishment for lack of commitment to spiritual faith. The cultural cloth pattern of batik was used to create the chains, demonstrating cultural barriers that constrain the person. Additionally, limited presence and funding for mental health services drives families toward spiritual intervention and institutions that use Pasung.

Indonesia’s national philosophy promotes freedom, humanity, equality and social justice, which lie counter to the practice of Pasung. The government promoting this philosophy is represented by the ribbon holding the petals of the Arabian jasmine (a traditional flower representing purity and sincerity) that conceals the issue. The government has implemented policy to address this issue, though their progress does not reflect their claimed priority.

Solutions to address the cultural influence on the practice of Pasung have been neglected. How do you find a balance between education and cultural beliefs? This dilemma cannot be solved without consideration of a community’s culture and values - we must work alongside the community to find culturally safe solutions.

Expat Web Site Association Jakarta, Indonesia (2016). Batik, the Traditional Fabric of Indonesia. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.expat.or.id/info/batik.html

Human Rights Watch (2016, March 21). Living in Hell. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/03/21/living-hell/abuses-against-people-psychosocial-disabilities-indonesia

Motif Batik Tambal (2010). Retrieved May 4, 2016, from https://ubatik.wordpress.com/2010/08/24/motif-batik-tambal/

The Conversation (2014). Indonesia aims to free the mentally ill from their shackles. Retrieved May 16, 2016, from https://theconversation.com/indonesia-aims-to-free-the-mentally-ill-from-their-shackles-30078

The Conversation (2016). How can Indonesia free the mentally ill from shackles once and for all? Retrieved May 16, 2016, from https://theconversation.com/how-can-indonesia-free-the-mentally-ill-from-shackles-once-and-for-all-57185

The Philosophical Basis of Human Rights in Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.indonesianembassy.org.uk/human_right-2.htm
TITLE: Show me your ticket
ARTISTS: Jacinta Abbott and Heidi Chan
MEASUREMENTS: 49x25x2 cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography and frame

“you have to understand,
that no one puts their children in a boat
unless the water is safer than the land

i don't know what i've become
but i know that anywhere
is safer than here.”

(Excerpt from "Home" by Warsan Shire)

Inspiration was drawn from this poem’s logical reasoning for fleeing on boats, an action that is portrayed to the world as unsafe. With currently 3.9 million Syrians fleeing their country, many using illegal boat transportation to seek refuge elsewhere - we must ask ourselves ‘why’? What forces communities to leave and at what price?

The occupational injustices that fleeing Syrians face are inextricably linked with the infringement of human rights. The occupational deprivation experienced is largely caused by factors which lie outside of an individual's control such as violence, persecution or threat thereof. This in turn diminishes their opportunities and abilities to participate in everyday occupations, such as work, education, safety, or play.

The top image represents the 51% of refugees that are children. whose lives are put at risk in the hope that they might regain their childhood.

The middle image represents the adults who are willing to give up everything in the hopes of providing a future for their family.
The final image represents the 3% of refugees who are over the age of 60. Due to their advanced age, many people in this age group are forced to stay behind, letting go of their families to allow them to pursue a better life.

Note: The writing on the 'tickets' held by each person read as follows:
Top image:
Names: Elyas and Adnan Hussaini
Age: 3 & 6
Origin: Hiding, waiting, running
Destination: Going to school and getting to be what I want when I grow (up)
Cost: My life? My brother's?

Middle image:
Name: Mohammed Hussaini
Age: 37
Origin: Threats to kill my family and a broken culture
Destination: Employment and a safe home for my family
Cost: My life's work, and my home

Bottom image:
Name: Amira Hussaini
Age: 65
Origin: Family head counts every morning and night
Destination: A future for my family
Cost: Never seeing them again

UNHCR (2015) Figures at a glance. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from __http://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html__

Whitehead, G.E., (2005) Understanding the occupational deprivation of refugees: A case study from Kosovo.Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 72 (2): 78-88. doi: 10.1177/000841740507200202

TITLE: Save Our Seouls
ARTISTS: Annie Jia Ling Xie, Grace Eun Hae Choi
MEDIUM USED: Collage, printed media

South Korea is the world’s 14th wealthiest nation and 4th largest economy globally. However, contrary to the possibilities of what such prosperity may offer, the youth of this country fall victim to the pressures of academia and educational expectation. Alarmingly, suicide is the leading cause of death for South Korean individuals aged 15 to 24.

For South Korean high school students, it is not uncommon to spend up to 16 hours a day studying, with a typical daily routine of school, tutoring and sleep. As a result, this reduces the time they have for socialising and participating in extracurricular activities, causing an occupational imbalance and slow erosion of individual identity. This socially constructed glorification of academic success has also lead to an unspoken deprivation and disengagement with the activities that these students found meaningful and necessary to release the stresses of everyday pressures.

The focus of our artwork is that these distorted standards of academic excellence placed on South Korean students often create a spirit crushing burden rather than an uplifting motivation to pursue their individual dreams and talents. We attempted to portray these ideas through the combination of everyday school materials such as notebooks and worksheets which together create a crippling, never ending workload on a monotonous and soul stifling journey to success. This fosters a psychological prison for students who lay trapped between their angst and frustration about the lack of occupational freedom in their situation and internal desires for job security and success.

Chakrabarti, R. (2013). South Korea's schools: long days, high results. Retrieved 4th May, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/education-25187993

Voices of Youth. (2011). Student suicides in South Korea. Retrieved 10th May, 2016, from http://www.voicesofyouth.org/en/posts/student-suicides-in-south-korea

TITLE: Dis-Edu-Ployment in CHINA
ARTISTS: Raymond Szeto, Ka Hei Wong
MEASUREMENTS: 49cm X 36cm X 1.2cm
MEDIUM USED: mixed media, photography, computer printing, photo frame, paper, cardboard

According to the National Population Investigation in 2006, there are 83 million disable people in China. Among 30 million people in poverty in China, 80% of them are disabled persons. The illiteracy rate is 43%. School dropouts for children (6-17) with disabilities is 35%. Among these more than half never go to school.

In China, mainstream schools are required to provide education to candidates with disabilities; however, there are schools do not meet the requirement simply based on excuses. Such as ‘parents not wanting their children to be in the same classroom as children with disabilities’, and the lack of disability-friendly accessibility on campuses creates barriers to students with disabilities. Besides, there are universities that set a higher entrance requirement for the disabled students which also limit their opportunities to be educated at a higher level. Disabled persons have lower education and skills, they are disadvantaged in the labour market. In reality, there are no disabled people who cannot work, just a lack of jobs that are suitable for people with disabilities. Employers refuse to create an accessible work environment means it is extremely challenging to seek employment opportunities for the disabled population. Despite the right for people with disabilities to work is guaranteed by law, it is poorly enforced. In 2005, 13% of rural household with disabled people, income per capita was under 140 AUD; and it was between 140 to 200 AUD in 7.96% of rural households.

Until people with disabilities are afforded equal education they will not have equal opportunities to succeed. (Stein, 2015) Our artwork represents the reality and struggle of the disabled population in China. It focuses on the man who has lost his legs, by looking up, it symbolizes how people with disabilities are searching for hope and equality in the society despite being ‘different’. However, the surrounding people simply ignore him, indicating negative attitudes within the community towards disabled people that lead to discrimination, social exclusion and occupational injustice.

STEIN, N. (2015). a society disabled: State of the right to education for people with disabilities in china. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 47(2), 501-527.
Artwork .jpg
TITLE: Refusedee
ARTISTS: Jeremy McGrath & Eugene Lee
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm x 36cm
MEDIUM USED: Photograph, Mixed Media

Due to the increased severity of conflict in Syria and the Middle East, more than 53,000 refugees and migrants are stranded in Greece, the “gatekeeper” of Europe. Fleeing from regions which are decimated by war they travel by boat to Europe seeking refuge. Many die in the process as overcrowded boats unfit for the journey sink along the way. Those who are lucky enough to survive reach land, but only to be detained in detention centres throughout Greece under appalling conditions.

These camps lack the basic human rights of adequate shelter, sufficient water or food and necessary health services. Asylum seekers of all ages, genders and cultures escape from unimaginably traumatic situations only to be placed in overcrowded camps surrounded by multiple fences topped with barbed wire and monitored by armed guards. Children are deprived of education, of space to play, of a childhood. Adults are deprived of the chance to do anything meaningful, work, social participation. They may as well be left on the boats and chained up like prisoners.

This idea of occupational deprivation is displayed in our artwork with a refugee chained up in the galleys of a boat. It reflects the relative amount of opportunity that is provided in either context. The words on the frame are the occupations being deprived while the tags reflect the injustice issues affecting these refugees. The tags were used because they resembled those you place on the deceased as that is where a lot of these refugees end up due to the poor conditions.

Hopefully this will promote your reflection on this issue of occupational injustice and how you may assist as an OT. An example is Lighthouse Relief, an NGO which enters refugee camps to create opportunities for these people.


Amnesty International (2016) Greece Refugees detained in dire conditions amid rush to implement EU-Turey deal. Amnesty International.
Retrieved May 10 from www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016

UNHCR (2016) Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean Retrieved May 12, 2016, from
TITLE: The Late Returnees
ARTISTS: Amanina Saleh & Wah Hong Lo
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm x 60 cm
MEDIUM USED: Cardboard, textured origami paper, watercolour, coloured pencils, and cotton strings

Thousands of former child soldiers have escaped and returned to their homeland after the two-decade conflict in northern Uganda ended in 2006. A decade later, although the number has dwindled, the flow of returnees is still consistent. They have returned home after years of living as soldiers in the jungle; where children as young as six were forced to participate in brutal, horrific, and traumatising occupations, and were deprived of their normal childhood occupations.

However, this is only half of the story; the injustice has not ended when they escaped. Many received little to no support upon their homecoming; and those who have recently returned are more likely to be neglected due to limited funding which leads to discontinuation of services. They are now at home and free; but without access to supports and services, re-establishing meaningful life within the community is almost impossible. Also, the absence of supports has stripped away their sense of hope and self-worth.

This artwork attempts to illustrate the returnees’ experience of occupational injustice which resulted from war and service inaccessibility, through metaphors and symbolisms. Doves are used to symbolise the returnees who are now free and peaceful from their brutal lives in the jungle which is represented by the trees/bushes. However, they are unable to fly with the other birds; which relates to inability to engage in meaningful occupations within the community, due to various reasons including severe trauma, physical illnesses (HIV/AIDS), and barriers within community (stigma and isolation). Each of these respective challenges is symbolised by doves being tied to trees, broken wings, and restraints from the ground.

Ellison, M. (2016). Tales from Uganda's female former child soldiers. Retrieved on May 24th 2016, from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/11/tales-uganda-female-child-soldiers-151130115418168.html

Durocher, E., Gibson, B. E., & Rappolt, S. (2014). Occupational justice: A conceptual review. Journal of Occupational Science, 21(4), 418-430. doi:10.1080/14427591.2013.775692

Patel, S., Schechter, M. T., Sewankambo, N. K., Atim, S., Oboya, C., Kiwanuka, N., & Spittal, P. M. (2013). Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern uganda. Conflict and Health, 7(1), 17. doi:10.1186/1752-1505-7-17

Vindevogel, S., De Schryver, M., Broekaert, E., & Derluyn, I. (2013). Challenges faced by former child soldiers in the aftermath of war in uganda. The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 52(6), 757-764. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.11.014
TITLE: Childhood Veiled by Servitude
ARTISTS: Eliza Bambridge & Jacinta Borilovic
MEASUREMENTS: 40 cm x 40 cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography and mixed methods (sand & photo frame)

What happens when a disregard for human rights and liberties becomes normal? Niger faces this reality with one of the highest incidences of young girls being forced into marriage before the legal age of 15 (United Nations Children's Fund, 2014). Child marriage “stunts a girls educational opportunities and income earning prospects and perpetuates poverty for communities” (Council on Foreign Relations, 2013). Unquestionably this deprivation leads to poor physical, social and emotional growth on both a micro and macro level.
Four prominent interconnected factors perpetuate this modern day form of slavery as detailed below.

Tradition: Islamic religious culture and societal norms supporting marriage by maturity not age, and the failure to do so can result in dishonour for families.

Poverty: A response to economic and resource shortages experienced by communities and families.

Security: A reaction to the high risk of sexual/physical violence within the community.

Gender roles: Women are not valued as contributing members of society, rather they are viewed as an economic burden with their value enshrined in their body.

The four taped girls represent these interconnected factors contributing to child marriage in Niger, and the mirror allows us to see this whole picture, much like our occupational justice lens. The light coloured floor and sand reflect Niger’s harsh environment as a landlocked country in West Africa’s Saharan desert. The girls are looking up symbolising a view towards a brighter future where Niger reaches the United Nation’s developmental goals. Note also the uncomfortable juxtaposition of young Australian girls wearing their white wedding dresses highlighting how this is a global issue, not just one country’s burden when moving towards a sustainable and more egalitarian future.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). (2014). The state of the world’s children 2015: Reimagine the future: Innovation for every child New York: UNICEF.

Council on Foreign Relations. (2013). Child marriage: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/peace-conflict-and-human-rights/child-marriage/p32096#!/?cid=otr_marketing_use-child_marriage_Infoguide#!%2F
 μια γυναίκα (I am a woman) .jpg
TITLE: Είμαι μια γυναίκα (I am a woman)
ARTISTS: Courtney Jones and Isabella Size
MEASUREMENTS: 59.4cm X 59.4cm
MEDIUM USED: photography

Imagine the internal struggle of being trapped inside the wrong body compounded by the overt intolerance from society? This is the reality for the ‘socially deviant’ group of transgender women in Greece who don’t fit the binary gender constructs. Transgender women in Greece experience the highest level of discrimination within the European Union. The artwork highlights this transphobia by contrasting confidence with brutality. In 2013, they were subject to systematic harassment, humiliation, and arbitrary arrests by the police with an aim to improve the image of the city. A clear violation in occupational rights.

Intolerance stems from ignorance and complex sociocultural factors in Greece. Misunderstanding of transgender women exists firstly as it’s classified as a psychiatric disorder, and secondly because definitions of biological ‘sex’ and culturally-bound ‘gender’ are synonymous. Consequently, they aren’t counted in the census or protected by anti-discrimination legislation. For example, hate-speech on the basis of sexual-orientation is not a punishable offence. The stigma can force families to disassociate with them, leading to occupational deprivation of basic needs including shelter and social-support. They often experience occupational marginalisation when obtaining employment. Those who do gain employment receive lower wages compared with heterosexual people of similar demographics including age. The Greek Orthodox Church has a strong presence in society and continues to publicly condemn transgender women. Additionally, the media distorts the image of transgender women through monetary penalties for hiring or airing positive representations of them. Light was manipulated in this artwork to represent the shadows cast by these authorities. These factors culminate to reduce the opportunities for transgender women in a range of occupations that people who are heterosexual don’t experience.

Grigoropoulos, I., & Kordoutis, P. (2014). Social factors affecting antitransgender sentiment in a sample of greek undergraduate students. International Journal of Sexual Health, 1-10. doi:10.1080/19317611.2014.974792

Drydakis, N. (2009). Sexual orientation, demography and labor relations. Retrieved 18 May, 2016 from:


Greek Transgender Support Association. (2010). Transgender arrests in police crackdowns and unlawful detention of the defenders of their rights in Thessaloniki, Greece. Retrieved 18 May, 2016 from:

TITLE: Out of Reach
ARTISTS: Alice Lee-Warner and Kate Cranney
MEASUREMENTS: 25cm x 10cm
MEDIUM USED: Cardboard, paper collage, red paint, fabric wrist splint and thermoplastic mallet finger splint

We use our hands for everything. From performing basic self-care tasks, such as washing our hair, to activities of leisure, for example playing computer games, various recreational sports or holding a child. When we injure our hands or upper extremities it can make everyday task extremely difficult to perform, which can in turn impede on our quality of life. In Australia we are extremely lucky to have access to some of the best health facilities, research and qualified healthcare staff in the world.

Fiji, on the other hand has limited funding and resources to support up to date hand and upper limb treatment services. It is interesting to think a country so close to Australia could have medical systems and hand treatment protocols that are completely backwards to that of the western world. 80 percent of Fijian people seek health recovery through herbal remedies and natural methods that are in line with their underlying cultural beliefs. The 'Kaiviti way' is a simply beautiful existence in which Fijian people believe they should live and therefore base their health recovery around this. From direct experience we have seen that this cultural health recovery process can result in increased health deficits and a decline in the recovery. It is important to be aware there is a fine line between the “Kaiviti way” and living below the poverty line and this is expecially evident when it comes to health care and medical supplies for injured people in Fiji.

This artwork represents the economical occupational injustices and educational barriers that prevent many native Fijian people from accessing adequate healthcare and more specifically hand and upper limb treatment. Fijian people are out of reach of adequate health care due to lack of funding and economic growth alongside lack of education in why specific treatment protocols are in place for recovery. It is of paramount importance to respect the fijian culture, promote and immerse the “Kaiviti way” in all health care support provided in Fiji to ensure the people of Fiji believe in the medical support provided.

This artwork challenges you to think about how you can “reach out” to the “out of reach” people of Fiji to reduce the occupational injustices they are facing today.

Fiji interim government to promote traditional medicine. (2000, September 28). BBC monitoring Asia Pacific - Political [London].
Primary health care: Fiji's broken dream. (2008). Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 86(3), 166-167.
TITLE: Property Of...
ARTISTS: Jonathan Lee & Clement Tang
MEASUREMENTS: 42cm x 59.4cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography + Photoshop

Human Trafficking is a serious international issue that violates human and occupational rights, which causes a negative impact worldwide (Taylor, Torpy & Das, 2012). Vietnam has had a known history of human trafficking with previous reports of 6000 women and children victims between the years 2005 – 2009 (Child exploitation and Online Protection Centre, 2011). According the U.S Department of State (2015), the Government of Vietnam does not comply fully with the minimum standards for elimination of trafficking. Often, women are lured through online dating and then taken overseas and are subjected to forced labour, sex trafficking and sold to brothel operators (U.S. Department of State, 2015).
Women who become victims of trafficking are often treated as tools by individuals as a form of earning money and are subjugated to substandard conditions with little or no pay. They are further deprived of the right to participate in occupations and retain their own roles, ultimately leading to a lack of identity, as their role shifts to being a slave rather than a free human being.
“Property of..” is an artwork that aims to depict the feelings of those who have been subjected to Human Trafficking. The artwork composition is a female stuffed inside the luggage, which is symbolic of the restriction of freedom that occurs as a victim of trafficking. The barcode on her arm signifies the exploitation of how the victims are treated as an object and slave with a price. The marks on her wrists and forearm represent the emotional and physical scars that the victims carry. The monochromatic background conveys the feelings of hopelessness as she is deprived and stripped of her occupational roles and needs.
Child exploitation and Online Protection Centre (2011). The Trafficking of women and children from Vietnam. Retrieved from: https://ceop.police.uk/Documents/ceopdocs/NPM_CEOP_FCO_report_-_trafficking_of_Vietnamese_women_and_children.pdf
Taylor, S. C., Torpy, D. J., & Das, D. K. (Eds.). (2012). Policing global movement: tourism, migration, human trafficking, and terrorism. CRC Press.
U.S. Department of State (2015). 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf
TITLE: The Land of the Free?
ARTIST: Laura Alcantara & Yannick Bocks
MEASUREMENTS: 45 cm x 33.5 cm x 42 cm
MEDIUM USED:Mixed Media - briefcase, black twine, plastic mesh, dolls, electrical tape, small toys, pencils, concert ticket, books and paper

Child sex trafficking is modern-day slavery that is an occupational injustice. How can the United States of America (USA) be the “Land of the free”, when it is estimated that over 100,000 children under the age of 18 are victims every year, with runaways and females at most risk. The average entry age for these children are 13 years old. The demand for these children for sexual exploitation in the USA fuels this business. These youth have their lives determined by the greed of others. Their roles as family members, students, athletes and teenagers are stripped from them and become mere commodities for use. Their occupations are altered to sex slaves. These people cannot go to school, play sports, go shopping, travel. In their formative years of their life, these youths are not given the opportunity to discover their identity and what gives meaning to their lives. They do not have the autonomy to choose what occupations they want or need to engage in. This deprivation effectively reduces these children's health, wellbeing and quality of life.

Mixed materials have been used. A briefcase was used to show how these youth are seen as business dealings, not human. Tied-up dolls were used to represent the child victims, as well as symbolically showing how when the trafficked youth are of no use, they are often discarded. The dolls do not have clothes representing how they are stripped, literally and figuratively. They are stripped of their identity and occupations, reduced to mere bodies sold for business. The objects in the pockets of the briefcase represent the occupations that victims of human trafficking are prevented from participating in. The close proximity of the dolls and the symbols of occupation show that these occupations are readily available to youth in USA, however are unattainable for this population. The mesh brings to life the invisible barrier between the victims and the occupations they are deprived, alienated and marginalised from.

Ark of Hope for Children. (2016). Child Trafficking Statistics. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://arkofhopeforchildren.org/child-trafficking/child-trafficking-statistics

Hughes, D. (2007). Enslaved in the USA. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.nationalreview.com/article/221700/enslaved-usa-donna-m-hughes

In our own backyard: Child prostitution and sex trafficking in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 111th Cong. 1. (2010). Retrieved from__http://hdl.handle.net/2027/pur1.32754081069357__

Kotra, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. Social Work, 55(2), 181-187. doi:10.1093/sw/55.2.181

Walker-Rodriguez, A., & Jill, R. (2011). Human sex trafficking. Retrieved May 18, 2016, fromhttps://leb.fbi.gov/2011/march/human-sex-trafficking
TITLE: The cost of financial security
ARTIST: Talia Ku, Karen Yeung
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm x 40cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media – photo frame, colour pencils, feathers, Chinese chess pieces, photos, paper

“In rural Bijie, southwest China, four siblings, the youngest aged 5, committed suicide by drinking pesticide.”
Though horrific, this event sheds light on the struggles faced by 61 million “left-behind children” living in rural China, 2 million of them with no adult guardian. In a mass-migration driven by rapid economic growth, poverty-stricken parents are forced to find sustainable incomes in coastal factory towns (e.g. Guangdong, indicated on artwork) and leave their children behind, either alone or with grandparents/other relatives, as China’s housing registration laws prevent migrant children from accessing education and healthcare outside of their hometown. Children receive wire transfers of money, but at what cost?

“Left-behind children” are occupationally deprived of the right to equal access of social services, marginalised by contextual factors forcing assumption of roles beyond their developmental capacity, and alienated as they experience the psychological effects of depression, anxiety, loneliness, vulnerability to sexual assault and human trafficking, failure to attend school and falling into crime. Efforts by local governments have been made through incentives like tax breaks, loans and occupational training to encourage migrant workers to return and start businesses in rural areas, particularly in Sichuan and Guizhou (indicated on artwork), which are notorious for their number of “left-behind children”.

Our artwork highlights these issues by portraying the lived experience of a “left-behind child”. Toys that Chinese children traditionally play with are contrasted with bleak words, a handwritten message (Chinese: “I miss Dad and Mum”) and three photos depicting the physical, psychological and contextual environments where play occurs. The three photos display an empty playground because children are busy with carer duties, an empty classroom because of increased vulnerability to abuse and sexual assault by teachers, and a home shrouded in darkness, representing the child’s abandonment and neglect.

Davison, N. (2015). The story of China's left-behind children, The Telegraph. Retrieved from __http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/11824563/The-story-of-Chinas-left-behind-children.html__
Hoffman, S. (2015, 13/07/2015). China’s migrant worker crisis and the children who are left behind. Retrieved 17/05/2016, from __http://theconversation.com/chinas-migrant-worker-crisis-and-the-children-who-are-left-behind-43725__
Ma, A. (2014, 5/2/2014). China raises a generation of 'left-behind' children. Retrieved 17/05/2016, from __http://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/04/world/asia/china-children-left-behind/__
Meng, J. (2011, 23/11/2011). Left-behind children regain strength. Retrieved 17/05/2016, from__http://www.china.org.cn/china/2011-11/23/content_23988093.htm__
Stack, M. K. (2010, 29/09/2010). China raising a generation of left-behind children, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from __http://articles.latimes.com/print/2010/sep/29/world/la-fg-china-left-behind-20100930__
Sudworth, J. (2016, 12/04/2016). Counting the cost of China's left-behind children. Retrieved 17/05/2016, from__http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-35994481__
The Economist. (2015, 17/10/2015). China's left-behind little match children. Retrieved 17/05/2016, from __http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21674712-children-bear-disproportionate-share-hidden-cost-chinas-growth-little-match-children__
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TITLE: Chocolate is my life
ARTIST: Amy Ha, Anna Newman
MEASUREMENTS: 30cm x 40cm
MEDIUM USED: Oil and acrylic paint, canvas

Behind the production of this chocolate is a widespread use of child labour, and in some cases slavery, on cocoa farms.

At the centre of this artwork is a small child lifting an oversized chocolate, symbolic of the heavy burden borne by children in the chocolate industry. Children endure poor living conditions and harmful work practices including hard physical labour and exposure to dangerous chemicals (__Iob, 2016__).The choice of the emerald green background at the top of the artwork parodies the romantic and decadent advertisement style of chocolate. The colour gradually transitions to a murky brown – representing the dull reality of chocolate production.

To remain competitive in the global market, children are sold or kidnapped into this industry. Children are forced to work long hours, leaving little opportunity for other activities such as education, family and play – all essential to childhood growth and development. In the artwork these occupations are brightly coloured and located out of reach from the boy - not only indicative of his desires but also the rights of the child (__Beigbeder & Palgrave, 2001__). This industry expels the child’s freedom to choose not only in the short term but also through the deprivation of education restricting future opportunities for employment making it increasingly difficult to break the poverty cycle (Food Empowerment Project, 2016).

The farms of Western Africa supply cocoa to international giants such as Hershey’s, Mars, and Nestlé (Food Empowerment Project, 2016) – revealing the industry’s connection to child labour, human trafficking, and slavery. Despite this knowledge, people continue to covertly endorse these actions by purchasing these brands. The essential role that consumers play in supporting the food industry’s injustices is represented in the painting by the woman eating, provoking us to question “is our love of chocolate greater than that for those who produce this?”

Beigbeder, Y., & Palgrave, C. (2001). New challenges for UNICEF: children, women, and human rights. New York; Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; Palgrave.

Food Empowerment Project (2016). Child labour and slavery in the chocolate industry. Retrieved from:

Iob, E. (2016). Ivory Coast Fights Child Labor on Cocoa Plantations. Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.
Katrina Le & Phi Van Phan.jpg
TITLE: Light Their Voices
ARTIST: Katrina Le & Phi Van Phan
MEASUREMENTS: 27cm x 27cm x 27cm
MEDIUM USED: Tracing paper, cardboard, masking tape, weather seal foam, double-sided tape, glue, LED light

Since the communist regime began in Vietnam post-1975, political and social constructs have defined the lives of Vietnamese communities both in the country and abroad. Occupational injustices were evident from this period onwards by the restriction of freedom to participate in occupational opportunities. The diaspora of Vietnamese citizens from the 1970s-90s were a direct result of deprived human rights. They experienced lack of access to basic services and support including health care, due to the corruption of the government in monetising basic resources. Restricting the freedom of expression in arts and culture meant that all publications were closely monitored by the government.

Vietnamese communities experience barriers in their educational pursuits, such as the filtering of learning content to align with government objectives. Consequently, employment is influenced by a biased selection process with the government limiting services that can be provided by each profession. Moreover, community groups and events undergo constant monitoring which has effectively limited social participation. These occupational injustices affect mainly Vietnamese citizens who still live under the regime, and also millions of overseas Vietnamese, who are concerned about the wellbeing of their people back in the homeland.

Our artwork juxtaposes reflections of tranquillity prior to communist rule, with images of conflict. The old Vietnamese flag pre-1975 that upholds freedom, is illuminated. We depicted life prior to the communist takeover through peaceful Vietnamese landscapes, the traditional ‘ao dai’ dress and the delicate lotus flower. Inside the eye, Vietnam’s disturbing past shines through, leaving its devastating impacts etched on the outside of the eye. Today, human rights activists continue fighting for justice in Vietnam and citizens have stepped up as warriors against the government.

(Pen International, 2014 ; Vida Latina San Diego, 2016)

Images from:

Pen International. (2014 ). Viet Nam: Prominent blogger and human rights lawyer Le Quoc Quan writes from prison ahead of his forthcoming appeal. Retrieved from http://www.pen-international.org/newsitems/viet-nam-prominent-blogger-and-human-rights-lawyer-le-quoc-quan-writes-from-prison-ahead-of-his-forthcoming-appeal/

Vida Latina San Diego. (2016). Vietnamese protesters rally against Taiwan's Formosa over mass fish deaths. Retrieved from http://www.vidalatinasd.com/news/2016/may/01/vietnamese-protesters-rally-against-taiwans/
TITLE: Layers of an Angeleno
ARTIST: Norman Rodriguez & Krystle Mae Mallari
MEDIA USED: Mixed media – clay, pine wood, wire, plastic, paper, juice.
Real objects: make up items, condom, syringe, pencils, plastic toy.
Three years ago, 14 year old Maya was sold by her family for USD $300. Trapped in this harsh reality, Maya has tried to buy her way out, her boss, however, keeps adding to her debt.

Once populated by the US military, Angeles City is now a thriving entertainment district. It is also the sex tourism capital of the Philippines. In Angeles City, it is common to encounter aging white men in the company of scantily clad much younger local women. Sex trade in this city is its economy and livelihood. The hope of a better life lures underage girls into the trade with promises to escape their life of poverty.

This artwork portrays the layers of a typical local woman’s story in Angeles City. On first impression, she is seen to be glamorous and living the party life, living the “it’s more fun in the Philippines” motto, as seen in the first drawer. The second drawer represents a life hidden behind closed doors; a more sinister reality to her life of drugs, alcohol and the sex trade.
Locked up and forgotten is a young girl who once longed to be creative, to dream, to play, to learn. The final drawer displays her items of innocence; items she is lacking; roles she should be fulfilling.

This is her experience of occupational injustice.

The layers of poverty perpetuate this injustice of depriving young girls of education and exposure to knowledge of the dangers of unsafe practices of sex and drug use.

Guth, A. P. (2010). Human trafficking in the Philippines: The need for an effective anti-corruption program. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(2), 147-166. doi:10.1007/s12117-009-9082-0

Ralston, M. L., & Keeble, E. (2009). Reluctant bedfellows: Feminism, activism and prostitution in the Philippines. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.

Urada, L. A., Silverman, J. G., Cordisco Tsai, L., & Morisky, D. E. (2014). Underage youth trading sex in the Philippines: Trafficking and HIV risk. AIDS Care, 26(12), 1586-1591. doi:10.1080/09540121.2014.936818

Zimmerman, C., & Watts,C. (2003). WHO ethical and safety recommendations for interviewing trafficked women. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Fiona Man & Dior Pun.jpg
TITLE: Friendship Marriage
ARTIST: Fiona Man & Dior Pun
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media - photography, shoe box, paper, dolls, glue, metal hoops, fabric

“Nice to meet you. I am a 32 years old lesbian living in Fukuoka. Looking for a caring man to be good friends with and get married to.
- No sex
- Willing to adopt children
- Willing to accept my lesbian partner

Yours sincerely,
- Translated advertisement from a Japanese friendship marriage bulletin board

At a glance, Japan seems to be a country that openly accepts homosexuality as it is commonly portrayed in Japanese popular culture such as manga, anime, variety shows and TV drama for entertainment value. In reality, for many gay and lesbian Japanese citizens, ‘coming out’ to their family, colleagues and society is still stigmatised as a shameful act and they are silently condemned for not conforming to mainstream way of life. In addition, LGBT community in Japan are vulnerable to experiencing multiple occupational injustices such as lack of protection against discrimination in the workplace, education, housing and healthcare, denied opportunity to assume parental role and denied rights to marry their loved one.

The possibility of being discriminated against and ostracised by society has forced many to partake in ‘friendship marriages’ in which a homosexual man and woman marry each other in order to conceal their identity and conform to social norms. In our artwork, a curtain of monochrome photos depicting a close relationship between a heterosexual couple serves as a ‘front’ that friendship marriages create and it's used to disguise their sexual orientation from society. Meanwhile, the box represents the stigma imposed upon the hidden couple inside.

Equaldex. (2013). LGBT rights in Japan. Retrieved 20th May, 2016, fromhttp://www.equaldex.com/region/japan

Friendship marriage bulletin board. (2016). Retrieved 20th May, 2016, from http://b.z-z.jp/bbs.cgi?id=anbdna9&num=10&style=1&p3=

McLelland, M. J. (2000). Male homosexuality in modern japan: Cultural myths and social realities. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon

Page, E., & Daniel, I. (2016). Gaycation s1 ep1 Japan. Retrieved 20th May, 2016, fromhttps://www.viceland.com/en_us/video/gaycation-japan/568fdf623cd5b1ad4d43efeb

Ringler, G. (2016). Making LGBT families a possibility in Japan. Retrieved 20th May, 2016, fromhttp://www.advocate.com/commentary/2016/3/07/making-lgbt-families-possibility-japan
TITLE: 'The Hidden Practice'
ARTISTS: Monique Humphries (430392843) and Madelyn Grant (430503058)
MEASUREMENTS: 47.5 cm x 54.5 cm

MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media – paper, watercolour pencils, ink, pen, string, fabric, recycled wood, mat board.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure involving the removal of the external female genitals for non-medical reasons. UNICEF estimates that 95% of girls between the ages of 4 to 11 in Somalia fall victim to FGM. FGM is a violation of human rights as well as the right to health, security, and the right to life (when the procedure results in death).

FGM is essentially a catch 22 between occupational injustices. When the child is forced to go through FGM, the consequence is occupational deprivation, where she is denied the opportunity to experience urination, menstruation and intercourse in a healthy way. Instead pain and infections are commonly experienced. Her future role as a mother can also be taken away from her due to obstetric complications. Many survivors of FGM explain experiences of occupational interruption after the procedure where they are left in a room for up to 3 months, being withheld from participating in school, play and activities of daily living. However if the young girls family challenges the social norms and refuses FGM she experiences occupational alienation, where she is seen as ‘impure’ and therefore not ‘marriage material’, isolating her from the community.

The artwork portrays a young girl from Somalia who has experienced FGM. The balloons signify the loss of choice, rights, innocence, opportunities, roles and occupations, which she will spend her life trying to regain. The skirt hides the mutilation providing the viewer with the choice to expose the issue or ignore it, representing the circumcisers in Somalia who understand the negative impacts of the procedure yet do not stop their practice. The faint words around the frame are excerpts from real life experiences, which represent the silenced voices of young women in Somalia, provide an insight into the reality of FGM and evoke an emotive response from the viewer.


Bass-Haugen, J., Henderson, M., Larson, B., & Matuska, K. (2005). Occupational issues of concern in populations. In C. H. Christensen, C. Baum & J. Bass- Haugen (Eds.), Occupational therapy: Performance, participation and well-being (Vol. 3rd ed.). Thorofare: NJ: SLACK

Durocher, E., Gibson, B, E., & Rappolt, S. (2014). Occupational injustice: A conceptual review. Journal of Occupational Science, 21(4), 418-430, doi: 10.1080/14427591.2013.775692

Goodwin, J., & Jones, D. (2008). The unspeakable practice of female circumcision that's destroying young women's lives in Britain , Daily Mail Australia.

Raya, P. (2010). Female Genital Mutilation and the Perpetuation of Multigenerational Trauma. The journal of Psychohistory , 37(4), 297-325. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2009.01629

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. (2004). Eradication of female genital mutilation in Somalia . Retrieved May 15th, 2016, from the UNICEF website: http://www.unicef.org/somalia/SOM_FGM_Advocacy_Paper.pdf

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. (2016). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Global Concern. New York: UNICEF.

Wilcock, A. (1998). An occupational perspective of health . Thorofare, NJ: SLACK.

World Health Organisation. (2016). WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutilation . Geneva, Switzerland:
World Health Organisation,.

World Health Organization. (2016). Female genital mutilation. Retrieved May 15th, 2016, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
OCCP4087 - Artwork 1.jpg
TITLE: I wish I may, I wish I might have this wish I dream tonight.
ARTISTS: Rebecca Lurie & Alison Schmidt
MEASUREMENTS: 54cm x 45cm
MEDIUM USED: Canvas, newspaper and paint.

There are 174 children currently trapped in Australian immigration detention centres. They are caught in the limbo of whether they will make it to the safety that they have always dreamed of or whether they will be deported back to the dangers they ran from.

In these detention centres they are denied the typical roles of childhood such as play, being educated, leisure and cultural activities. Play is limited to the fences in which they are detained. They are not able to choose to go to the park or cinema, join the local football team or dance class.

Fleeing from their culture and out of fear and desperation, often unaccompanied, these children have risked everything to find safety; a country where “for those who come across the seas, we’ve boundless plains to share.”

"As I looked through those barbed wires…that was the first time I experienced fear.”- Unaccompanied Afghan boy found to be a refugee.

Direct consequence of the occupational injustice of detaining children are serious issues surrounding mental and emotional health and development. Behavioural and developmental issues, amongst other problems have become the norm.

The artwork invites the audience to consider the perspective of a child contained within these fences. The silhouettes of the two children playing are representative of disconnect from a typical childhood that all children should have the right to.

The fence made from newspaper clippings of articles about refugees demonstrates the role of politics in the treatment of these people. The future of the world’s most vulnerable people has become a political bargaining chip.


Asylum Seeker Resource Centre (2015). Children in Detention. Retrieved from __http://www.asrc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Children-in-detention_April2015.pdf__

Australian Human Rights Commission (2004). A last resort? National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 3. Setting the Scene on Children in Detention. Retrieved from __https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/last-resort-national-inquiry-children-immigration-detention/3-setting-scene-children__

Australian Human Rights Commission (2004). A last resort? National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, 13. Recreation for children in Immigration Detention. Retrieved from __https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/last-resort-national-inquiry-children-immigration-detention/13-recreation-children__

Department of Immigration and Border Protection (2015, November).Immigration Detention and Community Statistics Summary. Retrieved from __http://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/statistics/immigration-detention-statistics-30-nov-2015.pdf__
TITLE: Justice for Life After September 11th
ARTISTS: Sarah Robbins and Wing Shan Yeung (Angela)
MEASUREMENTS: 50cm x 60cm
MEDIUM USED: Collage on foam board (newspapers, markers, paper)

September 11th, 2001. Coordinated terrorist attacks on targeted American monuments, including the north and south towers of the World Trade Centre, left over 6,000 wounded and 3,000 dead (Government of the City of New York, 2010).

Fifteen years on, the attack still has devastating psychological and physical repercussions for those directly affected. Everyday occupations, such as going to work, university, or flying were distorted for many families. As a result, social interactions were strained with an enhanced sense mistrust and role deprivation within US communities (Nilsson & Townsend, 2014). This occupational injustice has reduced the ability of individuals to participate in meaningful social interactions and daily occupations (Wright, 2003).

However, recent action in the US government has provided hope for those affected by the attacks. A bill passed in the senate will enable victims to bring countries who have funded associated terrorist groups to court under US laws (Buncombe, 2016). This encouraging progression has been represented in our artwork through the inclusion of the Lady of Justice. Using this universally identified figure communicates the idea that occupational rights transcend language and geographical barriers. Juxtaposed against articles highlighting the tragedy of the attacks, Lady Justice represents the restoration of occupational justice to both US-based and international communities devastated by terrorism.

Although many are still haunted by the horrors of the attacks, health practitioners can use this notion of justice as a vehicle to empower individuals, and work towards a sense of closure. This can reinstate the communal sense of belonging, and provide individuals with the desire to participate in occupations neglected in the wake of the attacks.


Buncombe, A. (2016). US senate passes bill allowing 9/11 victims to sue Saudi Arabia. Retrieved May 18, 2016, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/911-attacks-senate-passes-bill-allowing-victims-to-sue-saudi-arabia-a7034781.html
Government of the City of New York (2010). World Trade Center disaster deaths, September 11, 2001. Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/vs/wtc-deaths.pdf
Nilsson, I. & Townsend, E. (2014). Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21(S1), 64-70. doi: 10.3109/11038128.2014.952906
Wright, J. (2003). Ground zero needs assessment. In P. Precin (Ed.),Surviving 9/11: Impact and experiences of occupational therapy practitioners (pp. 79-101). New York: Haworth Press.
TITLE: Obstetric Fitsula: a life sentence
ARTISTS: Laura Leggett and Alexandra Mack
MEASUREMENTS: 58cm (L) x 33cm (W) x 25cm (H)
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media- palm frond, clay, stones, twigs, string, found objects

An estimated 2 million women worldwide have an obstetric fistula with 50,000 to 100,000 new cases being reported each year. Obstetric fistula is a medical condition which occurs during childbirth where a hole develops between either the rectum and bladder or the rectum and vagina. It is considered to be a ‘disease of poverty’ as it predominantly occurs in developing countries, with the majority of cases in sub-Saharan Africa. The cause of obstetric fistula is inadequate obstetric care, prolonged or obstructed labour, and/ or stunted skeletal formation of mother due to malnutrition. As a result, the mother may experience ongoing urinary and faecal incontinence, infections and ulceration of the vaginal tract, infertility, and paralysis or nerve damage.

The women experience occupational injustice as they are shunned by their husbands and families, isolated from their communities, and treated as outcasts due to the smell caused by incontinence, perceptions of uncleanliness, and assumptions/ misconceptions of venereal disease.

In the artwork, the juxtaposition of the disenfranchised mother with her community highlights her disconnection and inability to engage as a community member. She is also no longer able to perform tasks and participate in occupational roles of mother, wife, daughter, or worker.
The recurring motif of birth and the conceptualisation of new life serves as a stark contrast to the fragility and often fatality of the woman’s situation. The woman lies in the foetal position in a pram, thus, indicating her vulnerability. She is an outcast without social supports, money or skills to gain employment, thus, she faces starvation and premature death.

The umbilical cord attaches her to her former community. Her precarious position is indicative of her loss of control and autonomy. The umbilical cord, her lifeline, is close to breaking, thus sending her downhill, off the precipice, and into further suffering, uncertainty and isolation.

Arrowsmith, S., Hamlin, E. C., & Wall, L. L. (1996). Obstructed labor injury complex: obstetric fistula formation and the multifaceted morbidity of maternal birth trauma in the developing world. Obstetrical & gynecological survey, 51(9), 568-574.

Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia (Australia) Limited. (n.d.). About obstetric fistula. Retrieved from: http://hamlin.org.au/about/obstetric-fistula/
Semere, L., & Nour, N. M. (2008). Obstetric fistula: living with incontinence and shame. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1(4), 193.

Wall, L. L. (2006). Obstetric vesicovaginal fistula as an international public-health problem. The Lancet, 368(9542), 1201-1209.

World Health Organisation. (2014). 10 facts on obstetric fistula. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/obstetric_fistula/en/
TITLE: Tikanga Rua
ARTISTS: Savannah Abbott and Rachel Farrington
MEASUREMENTS: 60cm (H) x 20cm (L) x 40cm (W)
MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media- Acrylic paint, assorted beads, wire, styrofoam, photo frame, lights, permanent marker.

Aotearoa New Zealand became a bicultural society after British occupation began in the late 18th century. The New Zealand Wars between 1840-1870 stripped the Māori people of their right to celebrate their culture when their land was taken under the New Zealand Settlements Act of 1863 - punishment for retaliating against the Crown. The aftermath of these decisions is still felt today, encompassing the injustice that Māori people are still suffering for.

Kaingaroa, once the pulsing heart of Kaingaroa Forest, is a mostly forgotten town after the government sold the land to private investors. This has resulted in the loss of meaningful occupations and roles within the traditional Māori community. With few jobs, limited education, high crime rates and gang involvement, the flow on effect of the persistent disempowerment of Māori cultural needs and values within a bicultural society is easily seen.

With no school, children cannot learn.

With no employment, adults turn to crime.

When denied access to their land, Māori become disconnected.

And so the cycle continues.

This sculpture depicts the hongi, a traditional Māori greeting whereby the ‘breath of life’ is exchanged and intermingled between the manuhiri (visitor) and tangata whenua (people of the land). Hongi acts as a symbol of equity and acknowledgement of the cultural, political, and social histories of the lived experiences of each culture. The glass frame is decorated with koru - an integral symbol in Māori artwork representing new life, growth and peace, lit by the strength of a surviving culture.

The artwork conveys the concept of soho thai - the need to reconcile - alongside the indomitable strength, spirit and resilience of Māori cultural traditions. Understanding and cooperation is necessary in creating a wholesome place of being for the Māori, starting with places like Kaingaroa. Occupational justice will be achieved when legislation reflects Māori culture and ownership of land equally to that of the government.

Sibley, C. Lui, J. (2004). Attitudes towards biculturalism in New Zealand: social dominance and pakeha attitudes towards the general principles and resource-specific aspects of bicultural policy. new Zealand Journal of Psychology, 33(2), p88.

Rocha, Z. (2012). (Mixed) Racial formation in Aotearoa/New Zealand: framing biculturalism and ‘mixed race’ through categorisation. Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal Of Social Sciences, 7(1), 1-13. doi:10.1080/1177083X.2012.670650

Belich, J. (1956). The Victorian interpretation of racial conflict: the Maori, the British, and the New Zealand wars A. Arbor (Ed.) The Maori Strategy and the British Response (pp. 99-119). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/2027/heb.03894.0001.001

Every Way. (2015). Kaingaroa. Retrieved from: http://ineveryway.org/fusce-consectetur/

artwork image.jpg
ARTISTS: Katelyn Bentley and Lauren Wonders
MEASUREMENTS: 47.5cm x 24.5cm
MEDIUM USED: Photography, computer editing, frame


Child trafficking is child abuse. Millions of children are trafficked every year (UNODC, 2009). Thailand has high rates of trafficking of children for sexual exploitation and forced labour (UNODC, 2009).

The economy and culture of Thailand contributes to the prevalence of child trafficking as many families face extreme poverty and there is an expectation that young women must contribute to paying off their family’s debts (Blackburn, Taylor, & Davis, 2010). Child traffickers capitalise on this by falsely advertising education and job opportunities for youth, or by sourcing vulnerable families and offering advanced payments for their child (Davy, 2014).

These children DO NOT HAVE A CHOICE! They experience occupational deprivation as they are denied opportunities to engage in meaningful activities that are typical of a child such as play and learning.

Our posters represent the progression of a child experiencing trafficking, losing engagement in occupations that are helpful and meaningful. The first poster is reminiscent of advertisements that lure children and youth in. It also represents typical childhood occupations through use of a doll to represent play, and the book to represent learning. The second poster is aimed at clientele who purchase children. The doll is in a jar to represent the objectification of children and the occupational deprivation that occurs when children are trafficked. The last poster is reminiscent of awareness campaigns and represents the damaging effects on the child and their quality of life. Even if they are rescued, they will be left with mental health and physical issues (Kiss et al., 2015) that make occupational engagement difficult, including deprivation of skills they would have developed as a child. This is represented by the fact that she is still in the jar, despite technically being ‘freed’ by having the lid taken off.

Blackburn, A., Taylor, R., & Davis, J. (2010). Understanding the complexities of human trafficking and child exploitation: the case of Southeast Asia. Women and Criminal Justice, 20(1), 105-126. doi: 10.1080/08974451003641099

Davy, D. (2014). Understanding the complexities of responding to child sex trafficking in Thailand and Cambodia. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 34(11/12), 793-816. doi: 10.1108/IJSSP-10-2013-0103

Kiss, L., Pocock, N., Naisanguansri, V., Suos, S., Dickson, B., Thuy, D., . . . Zimmerman, C. (2015). Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailan, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study. The Lancet. Global Health, 3(3), 154-161. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)70016-1

UNODC. (2009). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. http://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf
TITLE: Out of Mind, Out of Sight
ARTISTS: Jessica Shlager & Sabrina Fischer
MEASUREMENTS: 58 cm x 25 cm
MEDIUM USED: Mixed media – Canvas board, acrylic paint, paper, mask, clay, glue, chain

Ignored, neglected, chained up, and forgotten. It sounds like a nightmare, but this miserable existence is often all that is known by people living with a mental illness in Kenya. In fact, over 11 million Kenyans are not receiving the mental health care and support they need to live fulfilling lives. Consequently, these people are deprived of opportunities to engage in meaningful family, work, recreational, or community roles and occupations, and this is an occupational injustice.

Stigma and ignorance of mental illness has influenced Kenya’s social and political environments. Traditional Kenyan communities believe mental illnesses are caused by witchcraft and curses. This means that people are often abused, locked away, or shunned by their community. Misunderstanding of mental illness has also resulted in inadequate mental health policy, allowing the government to ignore the needs of this population. Occupational engagement is further impeded by the severe shortage of mental health workforces in Kenya, with few health professionals willing to work in mental healthcare due to entrenched stigma and a lack of funding.

Our artwork explores how people who are “out of their minds” are kept “out of sight” in Kenya. The layering of words over the face represents how stigmatised attitudes conceal and restrain people. The three figures on the left are turned away from the rest of the artwork, demonstrating social, political, and medical disregard for mental illness. Finally, the gaps between the canvases symbolise the vast barriers that need to be overcome before occupational justice can be achieved for this deserving community. In order to combat this injustice, the experiences of people with mental illnesses and the barriers they face need to be uncovered.

Africa Research Institute. (2013). Reforming Kenya’s ailing mental health system: In conversation with Victoria de Menil. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://www.africaresearchinstitute.org/blog/mental-health-in-kenya/

Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (2011). Silenced minds: The systematic neglect of the mental health system in Kenya. Retrieved from http://www.knchr.org/Portals/0/EcosocReports/THE_%20MENTAL_HEALTH_REPORT.pdf

Kiima, D. M., Njenga, F. G., Okonji, M. M. O., & Kigamwa, P. A. (2004). Kenya mental health country profile.International Review of Psychiatry, 16(1-2), 48-53. doi:10.1080/09540260310001635096

Marangu, E., Sands, N., Rolley, J., Ndetei, D., & Mansouri, F. (2014). Mental healthcare in Kenya: Exploring optimal conditions for capacity building.African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 6(1), 1-5. doi:10.4102/phcfm.v6i1.682

Mbwayo, A. W., Ndetei, D. M., Mutiso, V., & Khasakhala, L. I. (2013). Traditional healers and provision of mental health services in cosmopolitan informal settlements in nairobi, kenya.African Journal of Psychiatry, 16(2), 134-140.

McKenzie, D. & Formanek, I. (2011). Kenya’s mentally ill locked up and forgotten. Cable News Network. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/02/25/kenya.forgotten.health/index.html?hpt=C1

Merab, E. (2016). Health experts warn of mental illness crisis. Retrieved from http://www.nation.co.ke/news/Health-experts-warn-of-mental-illness-crisis/-/1056/3207914/-/11id9yd/-/index.html

Muga, F. A., & Jenkins, R. (2008). Public perceptions, explanatory models and service utilisation regarding mental illness and mental health care in Kenya.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(6), 469-476. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0334-0

Osman, O. M. (2016). The taboo of mental illness in Kenya. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/04/taboo-mental-illness-kenya-160406093345546.html
ARTISTS: Jessica Mudge & Julia Mijnhout
MEDIUM USED: Mixed Media - Cork board, black material, paper, tea, laminate, textas, twine & ribbon.

Technology penetrates every aspect of our daily lives. It enables communication; it aids employment occupations; it expands on leisure occupations and allows for increased efficiency in all daily tasks. Technology has opened our eyes to the joys and struggles of the world and has increased communication and knowledge like never before. However, the world is blind to the deadliest conflict since World War II, causing 5.4 million deaths and 2 million refugees. Gold, tin, tantalum and tungsten mined in Eastern Congo supplies most electronic companies throughout the world with the necessary minerals to create and build the newest technology. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a war rages fuelled by the world’s need for communication and efficiency and we are partly to blame.This nation is the world’s poorest country per capita with 87.7% of the population living on less than $1.25 a day, many forced into mined labour by militia and armed groups. 64.1% of women experience violence, there is a lack of education and child soldiers are recruited to man and protect the unsafe mining areas.

Our advantage of having bigger and better technology is to the detriment and disadvantage of an entire people group. Where we seek employment, have great working conditions and are rewarded with possessions, the Congolese are forced into mining in rough instable conditions resulting in a poor life with no prospects.

Let’s use technology to end the world’s worst war since World War II by being aware of the sacrifice of others.

Eichstaedt, P. (2011). Consuming the Congo: War and conflict minerals in the world's deadliest place. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books.

Gettleman, J. (2013). Conflict Minerals. The price of precious: The minerals in our electronic devices have bankrolled unspeakable violence in the congo. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/10/conflict-minerals/gettleman-text

Kinniburgh, C. (2014). Beyond "Conflict Minerals": The Congo’s resource curse lives on. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/beyond-conflict-minerals-the-congos-resource-curse-lives-on
Perspective 2.jpgPerspective 1.jpg
TITLE: Forbidden Love
ARTIST: Lauren Sweeney and Helen Devery
MEDIUM USED: Photography and embroidery

The silent issue of sexuality and disability is rarely broached. Sexuality adopts the feeling of taboo when in actuality it is a basic human need and right. This issue is not isolated to one particular community but stems as a worldwide issue. As a community we are struggling to break out of the hegemonic and paternalistic prism used to view peoples with a disability (Sakellariou, 2006). We spend so long trying to protect the individual without realising that we too often assume they are without sexual desires (Dotson, Stinson, and Christian, 2008). Sexuality in the context of this work represents not only sex but meaningful relationships and pleasure.

Sexuality is expressed through a variety of occupations including grooming and dress, physical intimacy and relationships (McGrath & Sakellariou, 2016). ‘Silence’ is one of the primary themes impacting on the disregard for this problem. A lack of knowledge, discomfort and a reluctance to address sexuality and sexual dysfunction are contributing factors. Further, perceptions of masculinity and femininity inundate us via social media leading to unrealistic expectations. Age appropriateness is neglected resulting in assumptions around capacity that are severely altered in the presence of disability often stemming from a lack of education (Dotson, Stinson and Christian, 2008).

Photography was employed to convey how sexuality has been severed from the individual experiencing a disability. The photograph was edited in black in white to express the bleakness of being denied this human need, stemming from the ‘natural’ social resistance when exploring sexuality and relationships.The red thread arises from Japanese folklore. It asserts that each individual and their destined partner are connected by this unbreakable thread (Monasterio, 2015). The thread was severed and tangled to convey that those who have a disability are crumbling under societies expectations and assumptions of their capacities. Our question for the viewer is: how are you contributing to this issue?


Dotson, L. A., Stinson, J., & Christian, L. (2008). People tell me I can't have sex. Women and Therapy, 26(3-4), 195-209. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v26n03_02

Monasterio, L. O. (2015, November 6). The legend of the red string of Japan. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from __http://www.faena.com/aleph/articles/the-legend-of-the-red-string-of-japan/__

McGrath, M., & Sakellariou, D. (2016). Why has so little progress been made in the practice of occupational therapy in relation to sexuality? The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(1), 1-5. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/10.5014/ajot.2016.017707

Sakellariou, D. (2006). If not the disability, then what? Barriers to reclaiming sexuality following spinal cord injury. Sexuality and Disability, 24(2), 101-111. Retrieved from DOI 10.1007/s11195-006-9008-6

TITLE: Layers of an Angeleno
ARTIST: Norman Rodriguez & Krystle Mae Mallari
MEDIA USED: Mixed media – clay, pine wood, wire, plastic, paper, juice. Real objects: make up items, condom, syringe, pencils, plastic toy.
Three years ago, 14 year old Maya was sold by her family for USD $300. Trapped in this harsh reality, Maya has tried to buy her way out, her boss, however, keeps adding to her debt.
Once populated by the US military, Angeles City is now a thriving entertainment district. It is also the sex tourism capital of the Philippines. In Angeles City, it is common to encounter aging white men in the company of scantily clad much younger local women. Sex trade in this city is its economy and livelihood. The hope of a better life lures underage girls into the trade with promises to escape their life of poverty.
This artwork portrays the layers of a typical local woman’s story in Angeles City. On first impression, she is seen to be glamorous and living the party life, living the “it’s more fun in the Philippines” motto, as seen in the first drawer. The second drawer represents a life hidden behind closed doors; a more sinister reality to her life of drugs, alcohol and the sex trade.
Locked up and forgotten is a young girl who once longed to be creative, to dream, to play, to learn. The final drawer displays her items of innocence; items she is lacking; roles she should be fulfilling.
This is her experience of occupational injustice.
The layers of poverty perpetuate this injustice of depriving young girls of education and exposure to knowledge of the dangers of unsafe practices of sex and drug use.
Guth, A. P. (2010). Human trafficking in the Philippines: The need for an effective anti-corruption program. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(2), 147-166. doi:10.1007/s12117-009-9082-0
Ralston, M. L., & Keeble, E. (2009). Reluctant bedfellows: Feminism, activism and prostitution in the Philippines. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Urada, L. A., Silverman, J. G., Cordisco Tsai, L., & Morisky, D. E. (2014). Underage youth trading sex in the Philippines: Trafficking and HIV risk. AIDS Care, 26(12), 1586-1591. doi:10.1080/09540121.2014.936818
Zimmerman, C., & Watts,C. (2003). WHO ethical and safety recommendations for interviewing trafficked women. Geneva: World Health Organisation.